Tiles are often used for arranging walkways and building entrances to individual building sites, which is easily explained by its accessibility, excellent appearance and high performance. The technique of laying paving slabs is not particularly complicated, but because such work can be done on their own, at home, so to speak.
Today, manufacturers of building materials produce a large number of types of paving slabs that differ in color, shape, raw materials from which they are made, as well as their technical characteristics. It’s easy to get confused in this variety.
Types and recommendations for selection
The question of choice is most often based only on the financial capabilities of the owner of the site, since good paving slabs are expensive, and cheap - short-lived and not too beautiful. The modern market of building materials offers a classification of its main types of raw materials, that is, made of:
- natural hard rock,
- natural stone of soft rocks, such as sandstone or limestone,
- artificial stone
- ceramics and other firing materials,
- color and monochrome concrete,
- polymer sand mixtures.
Most often, individual developers acquire tiles made of colored concrete mixes. This material is affordable and sold in almost any hardware store.
High-quality colored concrete tiles are made by vibrocasting or vibrocompression. Piece products made by vibrocasting have a bright color and a smoother surface. The vibropressed material is more durable and frost-resistant, but not so bright.
Stamped tiles are also sometimes offered. With her purchase, be very careful, as this is most likely a poor quality material made in a handicraft way.
A very important issue is the thickness of the material, which you must determine before laying paving tiles with your own hands. For walkways in the garden, a thickness of 40 mm is recommended, and for car parking - at least 60 mm.
If you decide to pave the pavement on the street along your site, then use a tile of 60 mm, and on the road (but this will be too noble of you) you need to take products with a thickness of 80 mm.
Materials necessary for laying
Before you lay the paving tiles with your own hands, in addition to it, you must purchase materials such as:
- stone or plastic border,
- cement of the PTs400 brand,
- crushed stone, fractions no more than 40 mm,
- sand, best river or washed,
The required amount of these building materials is determined separately and directly depends on the construction of the base, the type of soil and the expected operating conditions.
Marking future tracks
It is recommended to take a copy of the site plan with the buildings, trees, flower beds and other elements of the arrangement applied to it. Draw a diagram on it. This will be the instruction for laying paving slabs, on which you will continue to work. When drawing up such a scheme, the direction of the slopes for the free flow of water from the tracks should be taken into account.
When deciding on the width of the tracks, it is necessary to provide that 2 people can safely disperse on it. Usually this value is 1.0 - 1.2 meters.
In the case of a car, the possibility of having a person who should not be forced to leave the paved surface is also taken into account.
Marking and excavation.
The marking is made according to the plan with the help of a tape measure and a cord, which is pulled along the pegs hammered along the planned path. When pulling the cord, 10 cm on each side must be added to the width of the track, with a gap for the subsequent installation of borders.
The main advantages of paving slabs
Not everyone knows how to lay paving slabs correctly. After all, this is a relatively new material. Nevertheless, paving slabs have become more in demand than the well-known paving stones.
Among the main advantages of paving slabs, properties such as:
- low cost
- simple styling technology,
- environmental friendliness
- resistance to aggressive environmental influences,
- variety of shapes and colors,
- the ability to create bright and original elements of landscape design.
In order to lay the track or the site with paving tiles yourself, you do not need special technical skills and knowledge, only the ability to handle conventional tools. If during the installation process, you follow the procedure exactly and try a little, everything will surely work out.
How to choose a tile
Paving slabs in landscape design are used in different versions. Tiles can be laid out:
- decorative grounds
- small courtyards
- the floor in the gazebo
- house parking for cars.
The purpose of the area on which the tile will be laid is the determining moment when choosing a material. Thin tiles (up to 40 mm) can be used to clad paths and areas along which they will walk or ride a bicycle. Tiles of medium thickness (from 40 to 50 mm) can arrange entry and parking for a car.
Thick tiles (over 60 mm) support the weight of a truck with a full body. Such tiles are usually in the form of small bars. This gives the cladding extra strength.
It’s easy to figure out how to properly lay paving slabs. The main condition for the novice master is to choose a section of small width for the first experiments. A garden path is best. It is better to choose a tile monochrome, square or rectangular.
How to design the surface of the sidewalk?
Before you start laying, you should think about the layout of the track. It is necessary to plan the width and pattern in such a way as to minimize the need to cut tiles. This will allow you to work faster and without unpleasant surprises in the form of cracking plates, curved elements or difficulties during installation.
Photo. Tile cutting is a rather troublesome job, so it is best to avoid it when planning a track template.
When planning the layout of a terrace or walkway, we must also consider water drainage. You can organize different options for water drainage:
- linear tap
- in the form of gutters in the sidewalk,
- to plan a height difference.
The difference in height is planned in the direction of the soil adjacent to the tile, for example, in the lawn. It should be borne in mind that the surface of the sidewalk must be raised above the adjacent territory so that we can avoid its pollution by water flows, in addition, this facilitates the penetration of water into the ground. The correct arrangement will allow a tile even after a rain to dry quickly and to be always clean.
When buying tiles, you need to pay attention not only to its decorative qualities, but also to the thickness. Different sizes are suitable for different purposes. Tiles 4-6 cm thick are used for paving walkways, sidewalks, or decorative strips around the house, while for a surface with increased load (entrances to the house and garage), you need to choose an option with a thickness of 6 to 8 cm.
Site marking and foundation preparation
First you need to calculate the area of the track or site. It calculates the required number of tiles. You need to purchase material with a margin of 10-15% in case of damage to the material. In order not to be mistaken in the calculations, you can draw a plan for the future site. This will facilitate the necessary calculations and calculations.
At the edges of the track, curbs are needed. This will help maintain the integrity of the structure. The border should be several times thicker than the selected tile. Laying the tile is necessary only on a properly prepared basis, not only the appearance, but also the strength of the structure depends on this.
The right base for paving slabs
To perform all necessary work, the following tools will be required:
- shovels - shovel and bayonet,
- Bulgarian saw
- the rule
- building level,
- rubber mallet or mallet,
- twine or cord, woods,
- Master OK,
- container for preparing the mixture.
First you need to outline the location of the track or site. To do this, pegs are driven into the ground on both sides of the track. A cord or twine is attached to them. You need to walk along the marked area in different directions to determine the correct layout and the optimal location of the site or track. In the process, the markup can be adjusted.
Do-it-yourself paving slab laying technology requires drainage. On clay swampy soil with a high location of groundwater, internal drainage is required. For this, in the process of excavation, the required slope is formed, drainage pipes are mounted to drain the water.
On dry soil, it is enough to arrange external drainage. To do this, paving slabs on the track are laid with a slope of 2 or 3 ° in the direction of the curb. Some water will seep through the seams between the tiles.
Under the foundation you need to dig a ditch. The topsoil is removed to a depth of 20 cm. The remains of vegetation must be removed. The bottom needs to be leveled and condensed. If the soil is very weak, a concrete screed is laid under the future structure of paving slabs. This will strengthen the foundation and provide long-term track or site.
Reinforced concrete base under paving slabs
Then the installation of borders. Between them, a pillow of finely graded (10-20) gravel or gravel is filled up. Bulk material needs to be leveled and densified a little.
Borders on both sides of the track must be installed in parallel. The internal space between them should accommodate the required number of tiles. In this case, it is necessary to take into account mounting gaps of 2-3 mm. Then a solution is prepared for concreting borders. Cement grade M300 or higher and sifted sand are taken. Proportion 1: 2.
A gravel pillow at the bottom of the trench is covered with coarse, moist sand that needs to be leveled. The thickness of the sand cushion after compaction of the sand should be at least 3-5 cm. To control from the top edge of the curb, you need to measure 1.5 tile thicknesses.
Tiles are placed on top. If its position exceeds the desired level by 1 cm, the sand can be tamped. To do this, ready-made pillow should be moistened profusely and left for several hours. Tamp tightly. After a day, you can start laying tiles. The main thing is that the concrete poured under the curbs completely solidifies.
Between gravel and sand, it is recommended to lay geotextiles. This will prevent sand from spilling into the gravel layer and provide unhindered moisture removal.
Designation of the area of work, preparation of tools and equipment
Laying tiles begins with the transfer of the project to the ground. It is important to plan the shape of the track or sidewalk, to determine the location of the control places, preferably where it is important to make sure the pattern is correctly laid or where there are some changes that should be taken into account. For planning use pegs and a lace with which they “draw” the shape of a track, platform or road.
Laying tiles on sand and gravel
Tiles are laid in clear, dry weather. Wind, rain, dampness complicate the installation process and can worsen the result, especially if the master does not yet have the necessary skills. The track is laid out in the direction away from you, you can’t stand on the sand and gravel pillow during operation.
Before laying paving tiles with your own hands, you need to prepare the mounting mixture. For it, dry sifted fine sand and cement in the ratio 3: 1 or a finished composition purchased in a building materials store are taken.
Laying tiles on a cement-sand mixture
So that the track can be dismantled later, the tile should be laid only on the sand. Dry mixture or sand is poured to a thickness of not more than 4 cm, you need to level the pillow. When filling, you can use guides from a reinforcing bar, tubes, etc. The mixture is distributed on the working surface with a trowel or rake and leveled using the rule.
If the path is narrow, sand is poured between the curbs and leveled with a trowel. Using the level, you need to draw up a drainage bias. During work, the master moves along the length of the track, holding a bucket of sand and tools at hand. On a wide track, dry mix is poured over the lighthouses. The height of the beacons is reduced by 1 cm through each meter of the width of the future path to ensure the flow of water.
On top of the finished masonry, you need to fill in the sand and grout the laid surface with a hard mop. Instead of sand, special grouting compounds can be used. The procedure for working with them is indicated on the packaging.
Marking and site preparation
Work begins with the formation of a recess that corresponds to the course of the sidewalk. The depth of the excavation depends on the use of the sidewalk - the higher the load, the greater the depth should be, since the thickness of the base should be greater. The following depth is recommended:
- for sidewalks, paths, terraces - the depth should be from 15 to 20 cm,
- for more loaded areas, for example for automobile tracks, this depth is not less than 50 cm.
The depth of the excavation also depends on the type of soil:
- on sandy soils it may be less
- on clay, where it is necessary to remove the impermeable layer, the recess should be larger.
In small areas, earthwork is usually done manually, and in large areas it is worth using specialized equipment that can be rented.
Land from the recess should be carefully selected. Soil can be moved to the site, especially if its volume is large, and professional equipment will be required for transportation. It is important to select the entire fertile soil layer, as it is very valuable and can be used to create flower beds and beds.
The bottom of the recess should be flat, smooth and of the correct shape - if we plan to drain in the form of a height difference, we should properly form the bottom of the pit, planning a drain. The difference should be about 1 - 2%. After you have selected all the necessary soil layer, you can begin ramming the site.
Materials and Tools
For laying the sidewalk, 2 main types of tiles are used:
The first type is more budgetary, it does not require special production costs, however, the quality of such tiles is often lame. But the tiles made by the technology of vibrocasting, on the contrary, are famous for their durability, but there is a small minus of this type - this is a high price. Tiles come in a variety of sizes and configurations, widths and lengths.
Height is from 20 mm to 70-80 mm. Given the purpose of the site, it is worth focusing on size and height. For small tracks of high strength, tiles are not required, so even thin tiles from 20 mm are suitable. But for platforms and driveways, it is better to use a thicker tile from 60 mm.
In addition to the tile itself, you will need:
- Crushed stone, sand. The fraction for crushed stone is better to use no more than 40 mm.
- Cement or a special plaster mix.
- Geotextile. It protects the tiles from subsidence.
- The border is usually sold individually.
Important! To calculate the number of curb stones, you need to know the length of the track itself. We multiply the value by two, and then divide the value by the length of one border, as a result, we find out the required number of stones.
What tool is needed for laying paving slabs:
Level (better than 1 m).
Bulgarian with a diamond wheel.
A few trowels.
Rope (for marking).
Additionally buy rubber knee pads and mittens. There is work with water and electricity.
Laying tiles on a concrete base
Preparatory work for laying paving slabs on a concrete base is carried out similarly. First, the tile is laid on a work surface covered with sand.
To prepare the solution, use cement M500. It must be diluted with water to the required consistency. It is better to mix the solution with an electric drill or a construction mixer. Sand is gradually added to the mixture of water and cement. It should be 4 times more than dry cement.
When laying on concrete, a strict sequence must be observed. Tiles are alternately removed from the sand cushion. For 1 time you need to remove 4 elements of the preliminary masonry. A solution is applied to the freed area. It must be evenly distributed. After laying the tiles on top of the solution, it is necessary to trim and slightly press down with a mallet. When laying between the tiles, special wood spacers are installed to obtain the necessary clearance. When the entire track or platform is laid out, the remains of the solution must be removed from the surface.
Installation of curbs for paving slabs
To clearly determine the surface course of the sidewalk and give it the desired stability and durability, you need to install borders. The edges of the curb are fixed on a cement foundation.The borders take on a large load from the surface, so they should be installed very carefully and diligently. They are a frame that strengthens the surface of the sidewalk. The edges should be planned so that their surface is flush with the surface of the tile. The transition from the surface to the curbs should be smooth. The size of the border, as well as the tile, depends on the type of substrate, as well as on the nature of the use of the surface. Borders can vary in thickness, height and strength.
Preparatory stage: marking and ramming the site
First you need to determine the size of the site and take into account all the nuances, create a plan drawing for your convenience. Choose the type of tile, which pattern or color you would like. Given the size, we calculate the amount of material. It is also advisable to mark the area, for this use pegs and a rope.
Check several times all the nuances, consider the inconvenience and others. Pay particular attention to vegetation, trees or shrubs need to be circumvented or removed from the site, especially if these are young trees. As the growth of the roots of trees or shrubs will begin to raise the soil, due to this, swelling of the tile will be observed, which will break, rise and sag in some places. Therefore, it is better to do a deviation from the seedling at least a meter, and preferably more.
Before laying paving slabs, it is necessary to carry out soil preparation work. First of all, it is necessary to remove the top layer of the soil, which will allow to smooth out irregularities, compact the soil and create a sand-gravel cushion. The characteristics of the site depend on the purpose of the site. For the arrangement of sidewalks, a platform is made 20 cm deep, and for car parks and porches 27-30 cm.
After the recess has been dug, it is necessary to tamp the soil. To do this, it must be poured from a hose with a sprayer, after which you need to go through a tamper. A simple procedure plays an important role in the durability of the pavement, as it helps to prevent the subsidence of the site subsidence process, which is observed over the course of the operation of the pavement.
Some rules for laying tiles
In order for the laid material to be even and beautiful along the entire length of the track, it is necessary to carefully lay out the initial row of tiles. Across the path, you need to pull the fishing line in compliance with the drainage bias towards the curb. The first tile is installed 0.5 cm from the curb. In the longitudinal direction, laying is level-controlled.
On the track, the tile is laid diagonally and rammed with a mallet. Between the elements you need to leave a gap of 2 mm. The laid out series must be carefully examined and all errors corrected immediately. Usually it is enough to adjust the amount of sand under the bulging or sunken elements. An evenly laid initial row is a guarantee that the entire path will be neat and beautiful.
Rammer will speed up paving slabs
If non-integral tiles are assumed in the masonry, they must be laid out last. To correctly outline the cut line, the tile must be attached to the installation site. A hacksaw is suitable for cutting tiles, but work will go very slowly. Therefore, you need to cut paving slabs with a grinder. A diamond disk is installed on it. You can use a special knife. You need to work with safety glasses.
On the prepared surface install drainage.
Water diversion can take two forms:
- Linear drainage, a tray-like structure, usually made of concrete elements placed on the sidewalk, which delivers water to the sewage wells. As a rule, it is concrete blocks with or without a grill installed on them, which are installed on the substrate together with the tile.
- Transverse drainage, which is a natural slope of the surface, most often 1 - 2%, which discharges water to the ground adjacent to the surface.
After the above work, you can begin to prepare the substrate. This work takes place in several stages, depending on what soil and surface we plan to create. Base preparation can be carried out in several ways. The base consists of several layers:
- native soil
- crushed stone
- adding, sometimes without a layer of rubble.
After removing the fertile layer, the soil is strengthened. To this end, remove the substrate with a shovel, and then mix this layer with cement. Mixing is done using a rake. After this work is done, the compaction is carried out by manual or mechanical ramming.
Then make the foundation. This is a layer that can consist of a mixture of screenings, gravel, gravel or clay, the thickness of which ranges from 5 cm and above, depending on the use of the sidewalk. Then the base layer is leveled, tamped and scattering is scattered on it.
What sand is better to work with? Fine sand or sand mixed with cement usually acts as a backfill. This layer is not compacted, it is simply leveled and laying begins. Sand will compensate for the possible curvature of the track, which should not be too big! Depending on the type of paving slabs - stone or concrete, as well as depending on the type of substrate, these steps differ from each other, which will be described below.
Laying of paving slabs should begin after opening all packages. This will avoid possible differences in the color of products from different lots. When laying the sidewalk, elements from each package should be used.
Sealing joints and gaps
When the installation of paving slabs is completed, it is necessary to close up small cracks. To do this, you need to prepare a cement solution with a high content of water glass. This will give the structure resistance to aggressive environmental influences. A mixture of sand and cement or sand is poured into the assembly joints between the individual elements.
Sand can only be used to fill slots and assembly joints. A small amount of organic elements or salts will subsequently lead to the appearance of small flora in the paved area. Plants will spoil the appearance of the structure and reduce its strength.
Sand compaction is performed with a narrow spray hose. The procedure must be repeated several times. Bulk material is added each time. The density of the filling of the assembly joints will provide strength and durability of the entire masonry.
Types of paving slabs with their pros and cons
Modern manufacturers of building materials make paving stones using various modern technologies. Depending on the features of the process, tile for sidewalks is divided into 3 types:
Vibrocast tile made using plastic compounds. The "filling" of building materials is poured with the help of equipment into special containers - "vibroforms". Paving slabs of this type have an attractive appearance, it imitates natural wood or brick. Most often, this type of building material is used for individual construction. Vibrocast tiled elements are used for arrangement of personal plots of country houses and cottages. They are also laid out on paths located in parks and garden areas.
Vibropressed Tile made in another way. Pre-prepared concrete mix is poured into a special mold. After that, it is subjected to pressure, which creates special equipment - vibropress. Due to the special manufacturing technology, the building material has a strict shape with a rough surface. Vibro-pressed tiles are laid on sidewalks, pavements, squares and roads in crowded and public places.
A large number of product options of various colors are available to modern consumers. Paving slabs are also of various shapes; the following curly paving elements are most in demand:
Depending on the material of which paving slabs are made, it is divided into several types. Comparatively inexpensive concrete and clay building materials are popular among modern consumers. In the arrangement of suburban areas, clay paving tiles imitating roof tiles are often used. To improve the technical characteristics of building materials, manufacturers can add binders, such as granite chips, to the tiles.
The most wear resistant is granite tilescharacterized by excellent strength characteristics of natural stone. It easily tolerates sudden temperature changes, due to which it has a long service life. Concrete slabs become unusable after 3-4 years, asphalt pavement will begin to deform after 2 years, and granite tiles will last more than 25 years. Another 1 plus granite - it does not require additional means of protection against damage. The downside of natural building materials is high cost.
Laying options for paving slabs
Paving slabs allow you to create various figures and ornaments in the house area. You can use ready-made styling schemes or come up with your own version of the design of the track or site.
The most common options for laying paving slabs:
- Christmas tree
- random mix
- circular pattern.
Using multi-colored elements of different shapes, alternating styling options, you can create interesting compositions on the principle of ordinary mosaics or puzzles.
Figured masonry is best done first on a site near the work site. This will correct individual errors or change something in advance. When the work surface is ready, the tiles are gradually transferred to it and laid in the right order.
To tile a round platform, you need to make a primitive compass from wooden slats with pointed ends. With its help, a circle is drawn on the prepared site on top of the sand cushion. Next, the tile is laid out from the outer edge to the center of the site.
Stages of laying paving slabs
When arranging a suburban area of a public place or garden path, certain rules must be followed and the recommendations of specialists be followed. To perform high-quality and durable laying of tiles, you must:
- Make drains for the removal of atmospheric water. When laying paving slabs of any kind on sand, rain or melt water will drain into the gaps between the paving elements and soak into the base. If the base is concrete, then it will be collected between the tile and concrete, which will lead to the expansion of certain sections of the track. To avoid this, a slope is required, which can be longitudinal, transverse and transverse-longitudinal. The clearance for draining atmospheric water should be between the tile and the curb.
- Compare tile size with track dimensions. The larger the area and width of the paving path, the larger the figured tile elements should be. Large paving slabs do not facilitate laying. Due to the fact that large tiles are more to lead, it is more difficult to transport, lift, move and align. While the height is adjusted, you will have to repeatedly lift a heavy layer to add sand.
- Choose the right track size. The width of the track should be selected, taking into account the dimensions of the paving slabs and the width of the gaps between the paving elements. This will avoid unaesthetic and time-consuming trimming of tile material. This rule applies to laying tiles with the correct geometry. When creating circular patterns and simulating natural stone, you cannot do without a cutting process. In this case, it is necessary to think in advance about the arrangement of solid and cut tile elements.
- Bring all communications to the tile laying process. If you do not take care of this in advance, you will have to dismantle the tile coating and rebuild it. If at the moment there is no need for communications, it is recommended to create conditions for laying sewer pipes in the future. To do this, under the track, in places where future communications pass, lay inexpensive plastic pipes with a diameter of 50 mm or more.
- Lay geotextile layer. It must be placed between the base cushion under the paving slabs and the ground in order to avoid the path sagging and grass sprouting between the figured paving elements.
Laying stone paving slabs and pavers
Stone paving slabs are used in open areas and in private households both for roads and on sidewalks, ramps or platforms. She looks very stylish and elegant, and works well in households decorated in both classic and modern styles. In the market you can find stone tiles that vary in size, thickness and shape.
Stone paving stones
Stone walkways require the use of stone curbs. Sometimes cobblestone curbs also fit well with them, which, like others, must be attached to a concrete base. The base under the paving stones is gravel, screenings or their mixture. A layer of fine sand is poured onto such a base and then pavers are laid. If the soil is permeable, and it is planned to use it under pedestrian walkways or to drive with a small load, then you can abandon the layer of gravel and lay stone paving stones on a sand layer with a thickness of 5 cm to 20 cm.
Stone pavers are laid 2 cm above the level. After laying, each element is driven in with a rubber mallet, then the gaps are filled with fine-grained sand, sweeping it in the gaps. This layout is ideal for patterns such as waves, fans or circles.
If you plan to lay a long stone cobblestone in a pattern with lines, you may need a substrate in the form of crushed stone with a thickness of 17 - 23 cm. A layer of sand is poured on it and then laying.
Laying stone tiles is most often used in pedestrian zones, the process is similar to the laying of paving stones indicated above. The tile is laid on sand, the layer of which has a thickness of 15 cm - on permeable soil. An area with impermeable soil where water stagnates is not a good solution. Therefore, in this case, two layers will be used as the foundation: the first (which is deeper) is a gravel mixture, i.e. a mixture of sand and gravel of various fractions (15 cm thick), and the next layer is sand with a layer having a thickness of 2-3 cm.
If we lay large tiles, it is not always necessary to use borders. To stabilize the entire structure, cement fixation can be used.
Photo. Cement Mortar Tile
Use and care
A freshly laid path from paving slabs will be ready for use 2-3 days after the end of all work. To remove dust and debris, the track is usually swept with a broom and washed with a stream of water from a hose. Deep patterns with bright colors need to be cleaned more often and more carefully than ordinary masonry.
Sand laid in inter-tile seams is gradually washed out as a track or pad is used. Therefore, it must be added as necessary. Damaged structural elements (such as cracked tiles) are easily replaced with new ones.
Paving slabs are unstable to mechanical influences, therefore it cannot be cleaned with abrasive powder. It is better to use sifted river sand.
Strong stain remover chemicals should not be used. A fairly mild soapy solution. It is applied with a non-rigid brush and then washed off with water from a hose.
In winter, snow and ice must be carefully removed without using metal tools. A snow tip with a rubber tip can be used. This will preserve the decorative tiles. So that the track is not slippery, it must be sprinkled with ordinary clean sand.
Stage 1 - Laying paving slabs - diagrams, patterns, drawings
Paving stones and tiles are presented by manufacturers in an extensive assortment, which allows you to get a durable and aesthetic coating in public places, on the adjacent territory of a private house or cottage. The main task of the designer is to choose the right tile design option and determine the method of its placement. If you are engaged in the independent arrangement of a suburban area, you should first familiarize yourself with the types of tiles, paving methods and options for laying decorative materials.
Due to the standard ratio of the length and width of the figured paving elements (FEM), there are a large number of paving slab laying schemes. For example, using a plain brick, you can arrange the paving elements in various ways - along the track, diagonally to the longitudinal axis and lay out the original decorative pattern on any part of the roadway.
When using solid curly paving elements, the following types of FEM layout layouts are popular:
- Linear masonry. Bricks are placed parallel to each other along the line of the track, while the seams of adjacent elements coincide.
- "Herringbone". Фигурные элементы мощения располагаются под прямым углом друг к другу,
- «Кирпичная» кладка. Ориентация элементов мощения сохраняется, как в «линейной» кладке, но добавляется перевязка в ½ или ¼ Кирпичик в соседних рядах,
- «Блочная» кладка. Два элемента мощения располагаются параллельно друг другу, а примыкающие к ним 2 бруска развернуты под прямым углом.
Useful advice! If you add Cube tile to the figured elements of paving Brick, you can significantly improve the quality and attractiveness of the exterior of the paving zone.
When laying paving slabs of 2 or more colors, various paving options can be used to create a stylish and aesthetic design of the house area. If tiles of several colors or textures are used for landscaping, the layout of the “Chessboard” tile is simple in design and effective in appearance. The standard block diagram consists of pairwise oriented brick or cube paving elements.
When paving pavement and garden paths with multi-colored curly elements, it is recommended to observe the following rules:
- In suburban areas, almost no flat sections of roads are found without elevation differences and intersections. In order to qualitatively complete the drawing of the paving zone, it is necessary to draw a sketch on a scale or create a full-fledged project with a future order of solar cells.
- In order to stylishly equip and decorate a large area, you need to choose an original large-sized drawing.
- When arranging small sections of roads, it is recommended to use a small repeating pattern, pattern or ornament.
In almost every suburban area there are winding sections that need to be equipped with paving slabs. Curly paving elements allow you to quickly create radius patterns with little effort. Laying of paving slabs is carried out according to a special technology, which includes the following steps:
- sketching in a special program or on a scale,
- the contact layer, consisting of granotseva, scuffing or sand or scuffing, is applied to the area of the paving zone, and then carefully leveled,
- FEM laying is carried out from a smaller radius to a larger one, provided that the paving elements are positioned sideways along the track,
- compaction - after filling, the seams are filled with washed quarry or quartz sand, after which the tile is rammed using an areal vibrator.
Important! If the Bricks are oriented across the track, then first of all lay a row of small radius. In this case, the longitudinal seams of the paving elements are displaced in the form of a wedge of the required size.
Using the above-described laying technology, it is possible to lay the Brick element in a similar radius pattern and on straight sections of the road with a large format. In the process, it will not be possible to do without cutting some concrete products, because of which the pattern will contain pieces of paving elements of a small size. Despite this, the radius pattern will significantly increase the decorative value and attractiveness of the paving zone.
Laying concrete paving stones
Concrete paving stones are today the most popular solution for sidewalks, primarily because of its attractive price, as well as due to good technical parameters and a large selection of options. Unfortunately, sometimes due to excessive patterns and colors in the composition, we get an ugly, tasteless and lurid result. Therefore, when choosing paving stones, it is important to think carefully about the design of the sidewalk or the platform by which it will be paved.
Concrete paving stones are currently produced in four thicknesses: 4 cm, 6 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm.
Depending on the purpose, various thicknesses of the material are chosen:
- 4 cm - for sidewalks or decorative strips around the building,
- 6 cm - for areas with low load (pedestrian and light transport roads for cars weighing up to 3.5 tons),
- 8 cm - for street roads and parking lots,
- 10 cm - roads for heavy vehicles, buses and other heavy vehicles.
Most often, concrete paving stones are made in various colors. There are exquisite options, the surface of which is decorated with crumbs, and the texture can be more decorative. There are also products deliberately aged or stylized, hence their great popularity.
The advantages of this material include the relatively simple assembly, disassembly or repair of any damage. Concrete cubes are also very resistant to stress, abrasion, or external factors.
Concrete paving stones
This type of coating is laid in accordance with the type of substrate and the purpose of the surface (pedestrian, travel):
|Concrete paving stones||Permeable soil||Impermeable soil|
|Footpath||sand layer 5 - 10 cm||- sand layer 5 - 10 cm,|
- beneath this layer is a layer of gravel about 10 cm thick.
|Road for car||crushed stone 10-15 cm + clay 2 - 3 cm||crushed stone 20 cm + clay 2 - 3 cm|
Paving stones should be placed 1.5 cm above the level, seams should be about 2-3 mm. Seams are filled with sand and wetted to make it donkey. This is repeated until the seams are completely filled. Then they clean the surface and, if necessary, compact it with a vibrating plate with a plastic cover.
Paving stones have many advantages; therefore, they are often used as paving paths and sidewalks in private homes.
Stage 2 - Preparation of material and tools for laying paving slabs
This is one of the most important stages in arranging the paving zone with tiles. To quickly and efficiently perform work, you need to prepare everything you need for laying paving slabs. The following materials will be required for paving:
For self-laying of paving slabs it is necessary to prepare the tools:
- kapron thread
- rubber mallet
- long rule
- Master OK,
If you plan to trim the curly elements of paving, you must prepare a grinder with a disk for cutting concrete. It is also recommended to buy knee pads that will help protect your knees when working with emphasis on this part of the body.
Stage 3 - Laying for laying paving slabs
The marking of the paving area involves determining the contour of the future pavement. The place of marking is indicated with the help of pegs inserted into the soil, between which it is necessary to stretch the nylon thread. Since it serves as a guideline for the subsequent laying of the tile, the thread must be pulled clearly in level. In the process of marking, the following rules must be observed:
- The area for paving paving slabs should be marked with stripes 1 - 1.5 m wide.
- All paths located on a suburban area should have a slight slope towards the drain, due to which sedimentary waters will not adversely affect the coating and destroy it.
- After laying the paving slabs, it is necessary to check the width and level of the tracks, as well as the convenience of their location on a suburban area.
Stage 4 - preparation of the base for paving slabs
Thanks to the carefully prepared base, the coating will last longer. Over time, the tracks will not sag and will last a longer time.
If before that there was already tile on the site, it must unconditionally be removed and at least 25 cm of soil must be removed. Pay attention to the remaining roots or stems, all this must be removed without regret, so that in the future various plants do not grow from your tile. Be sure to think over the flow of water, even through small gaps, water will still fall into the soil.
Important! It must be ensured that the base for laying paving slab elements is perfectly even.
If clay prevails in the soil, it is better to make a kind of hollow and drainage at the end of the trench. And in order for water to flow precisely into the drainage system, you need to make a slight slope along the edges with transverse and longitudinal drains.
The main feature of the “pillow” is that no matter what type of mortar will be used during installation, it is necessary to make a crushed stone or sand base. To ensure reliability, additionally make a screed from the mortar.
Important! For areas that are expected to have a strong impact of weight, you must definitely do a screed.
To begin with, at the first level we lay and carefully tamper a layer of rubble or gravel. Next, a layer of sand is laid on this compacted base. Keep in mind that the sand should be about 3-4 cm long after tamping. And the tile should protrude beyond the total height of the plot, by about 1-1.5 cm. It is recommended to lay geotextiles between gravel and sand, which will allow sediments to flow freely, but keep the sand from sagging.
If the characteristics of the soil are not heaving, you can use only a layer of one sand of 10-15 cm, but at the same time it must be moistened. Sand after scattering on the site is plentifully filled with water, and after a few hours it is rammed. And with the top layer you need to use the finished mixture, or prepare yourself a sand-cement mortar, with a ratio of 3 to 1. You need to fill up about 3-5 cm.
Useful advice! To withstand a single level of embankment on the site, you can use the life-facsimile, namely to build a kind of guides from pipes, which are then easily dismantled.
Stage 5 - Technology of laying paving slabs
Remember one important rule, you need to lay the tiles only on your own, thus you will not break the base. Also, laying regardless of the size of the material, it is necessary on a diagonal plane and each element is tightly adjusted, this will help solve the problem of uneven seams. It is recommended to leave no more than 2 mm between the plates, so that after there is enough space for dusting. Tamping the laid tiles is better with a wooden mallet. If the element does not lie evenly, or fails, gently trowel up the sand with a trowel and press.
After all laying, “swollen” tiles are aligned in a common tone with a rubberized hammer and level. There are times when you need to cut a tile and trim to create a pattern, and so, do it only when all the whole format tile in the pattern is laid. For cutting it is better to use a special knife, or for lack of such, a grinder.
Important! Installation of paving slabs cannot be carried out during rain or immediately after precipitation, as the soil and the pillow placed on it must be dry. Optimum humidity - a guarantee that the tile will last for many years.
Add a final touch to the design of the site, installing a border will help. These stones allow you to create a geometrically flat area. After laying all the material, a trench breaks out along the edge for installing curbs. The curb must be installed in such a way that the top of the tile itself does not rise above the stone. The curbstone is placed on the solution, the consistency is not less than M100. From the side, the curb also needs to be poured with a solution, and sprinkled with a small layer of sand on top.
After laying all the elements, we check the site so that there are no bulges or pits. If defects are found, we eliminate them and fill up absolutely all the seams with sand or a mixture with the addition of cement. All excess is easily removed with a whisk, and after the seams from the hose, you need to properly moisten it. If, after wetting, the sand has subsided, it is absolutely necessary to fall asleep in order to strengthen the coating. Otherwise, under the load of adjacent plates, the canvas will begin to rise or sink and “walk”.
Important! Please note that the sand used for dusting should in no case have any impurities, otherwise vegetation may appear in the cracks over time.
It is only possible to start full development of the site, that is, to walk, ride on it only after a few days. This should not be done before, since the solution should harden and dry. Do not forget that tiles must be periodically cleaned and washed. In winter, do not use metal scrapers and crowbars to clear the area - this will damage the surface of the plate. It is also categorically not allowed to use salt-containing mixtures, because over time they will destroy the coating. In addition, keep in mind that any tile is not "friendly" with varnish, paint and other chemicals.
Earthworks and protective layer
The volume of work performed depends on the density of the upper layer. In the event that the surface is dense clay or any other similar soil, in connection with which it is planned to import bulk soil, then the preparation of the path for laying tiles is reduced to a simple leveling of the surface.
In all other cases, it is necessary to remove 30-35 cm of the surface layer along the entire marked perimeter.
At the bottom of the trench, it is necessary to pour a thin leveling layer of sand and compact it well with the soil. This underlying layer will then need to be covered with geotextile, which will prevent the germination of weed grass, allow water to drain from the drainage layer and prevent the penetration of groundwater rising in spring.
The geotextile stripes are laid out so that adjacent sheets overlap by 15-20 cm, and at the edges of the trench there is a turn up at least 20 cm. In this case, the technology of laying paving slabs with your own hands will be fully respected, and the result of your work will be incomparably better .
A layer of crushed stone 15-18 cm thick is poured onto the rammed bottom of the trench lined with geotextiles. It will serve as a drainage for collecting and draining melt and surface waters. The presence of a drainage layer will prevent the possible accumulation of moisture at the base of the track and subsequent swelling in the event of freezing of the soil.
Crushed stone should be well compacted and sprinkled with a thin layer of sand. On top of the drainage, you need to line the second layer of geotextiles. He will let moisture down, preventing its return.
Stone products are fixed on the mortar, and plastic - with the help of wedges included in their delivery.
Placement of fencing borders
At the next stage of work, borders are installed. To do this, you can use almost any material. The external fencing of the tracks is made of stone, concrete, plastic, brick, wood, slate and any other flat materials.
A traditional piece-ready curb made of concrete is considered a traditional option. Recently, manufacturers have offered several types of plastic borders on the market, which are distinguished by their durability, low cost and ease of installation.
The border is installed after the drainage layer.
Applicable types of substrates
To arrange pedestrian walkways on the site, one of three possible types of support base is used:
- from compacted sand.
Concrete base is the most expensive, and therefore it is advisable to use it only in the case of anticipated large loads on the surface. Cement-sand base is the most common and universal. Sand base can be used for small loads on the surface and the absence of heaving soils and their movements.
Schematic representation of a concrete base.
Concrete base casting
Concreting of the foundation, before laying paving slabs, begins with reinforcement. For this, it is best to use a finished welded metal mesh with a mesh size of 100x100 mm. If you have the remains of old metal pipes, wire, rods more than 5 mm thick or other similar metal remains, then reinforcement can be performed using them.
To do this, lay out the metal in the form of a lattice and tie its individual parts at the intersections with wire. It is advisable to raise the reinforcing mesh 3-5 cm above the surface by placing it on metal or stone supports.
The concrete layer should be 10-12 cm thick, and its surface should be below the ground by a tile thickness of minus 3 cm, since we then have to put the paving slabs with our own hands.
If after installing the drainage layer the depth of the working trench remains quite large, then the excess is covered with sand, which is then compacted. Concrete mixture using cement ПЦ400 is prepared in a volume ratio of cement, sand and gravel as 1: 3: 5.
Concrete is poured at a time. In the case when the volume of concrete for pouring is very large, it is advisable to order a concrete mixture with delivery to the place. The cost of concrete in this case is slightly higher, but you will save a lot of time and effort. Paving slabs are laid in 3-5 days after the initial setting of concrete.
Step-by-step process of laying FEM.
Sand and cement base
This type of base provides for laying tiles on a dry cement-sand mixture, prepared in a ratio of 1: 5. The thickness of this layer is 12-15 cm. In order to reach the desired level, clean sand is poured under the cement-sand layer and thoroughly compacted.
It is important that at the time of laying the tile, the base material is dry. Therefore, before laying paving slabs, you need to make sure that there will be no precipitation in the next couple of days. The filled mixture must be well tamped and leveled.
For the device of the sand base, river or quarry washed sand is used. The presence of lime or clay elements in the sand is not allowed. After backfilling the sand, it must again be shed with water, compacted and leveled. Next, paving slabs are already laid.
Tile processing before laying
Before laying paving slabs on your own, it is recommended to treat it with a hydrophobic composition, which will further protect the material from moisture, increase its frost resistance and durability. Кроме этого, гидрофобизаторы придают плитке более привлекательный вид, предотвращают появление грибка, плесени и солевых пятен на поверхности.
Для обработки плитки её окунают в гидрофобный раствор, высушивают и проводят эту операцию повторно. During pre-processing, the tile must be carefully examined and all products containing defects should be set aside, since we will then lay them out in other, inconspicuous areas.
The technology of laying paving slabs on a concrete base provides for its fixing to a layer of cement mortar. Putting paving slabs with your own on the mortar is necessary so that it fills the joints as much as possible, and the thickness of the joints does not exceed 3 mm.
Alignment is carried out with a rubber mallet and checked by the building level. The advancement during the masonry takes place “on yourself”, that is, you are always on the already laid tile, and the solution is laid in front of you. At the end of the masonry, all joints must be repaired with a solution to obtain a continuous monolithic coating.
The stages of laying paving slabs on a cement-sandy and purely sandy foundation are the same. The paving slab stacker works by the “on yourself” method, that is, you move along the sand and lay the material in front of you. If necessary, leveling the surface, sand or mixture is sprinkled or, conversely, removed.
Each stone must be hit with a rubber mallet to securely fit into place.
After laying, a small amount of cement-sand mixture is poured onto the surface, which is then brushed to fill the seams.
Then the surface of the newly made track must be poured with water and repeat this procedure after another 2-3 days.
Below is a video tutorial on the topic "Laying paving tiles with your own hands: step-by-step instructions." The process of laying paving slabs, discussed in it step by step, will tell you about the procedure for laying paving slabs, the features of this process and ways to further care for the coating.