An integral attribute of all trips is a bonfire. You must be able to kindle it in different conditions. It is important to know the following criteria:
- Selection of a place for a bonfire.
- Principles of preparing the site and firewood.
- Methods of kindling.
- Ways to light a fire in any weather and season.
The best place under a fire in the forest is one that is reliably protected from wind and rain. Optimally, if he has a natural shelter, for example - a rock. If there is a source of water near it, it’s generally wonderful. The main thing is not to violate the PPB.
The fire must not burn:
- Under the crowns of trees.
- Between massive roots.
- Among the dry and young conifers.
- In an area with dry grass.
- On stone placers.
- On peatlands.
Any foliage, dry grass, branches and other garbage are removed from the campfire zone. The upper soil layer is being eliminated. The platform is lined with stones. In open steppe zones, the bonfire necessarily deepens. A defensive wall is being erected from the side of the blowing wind.
In winter or in bad weather, a bonfire in a damp forest should be on a special flooring. It is formed by logs. At the same time, the coals in the first stage will not go out from the damp earth.
Question on fuel
Dry material from deciduous trees produces almost no smoke. And raw wood or its rotten version generates little heat, but a lot of smoke. The material from live birch contains a lot of moisture. If there is a shortage of choice, chop it on the logs.
From dry brushwood of small sizes, a powerful fire is obtained. But this material quickly burns out. The dry coniferous version burns perfectly. It produces a lot of coals, but also substantial volumes of smoke and soot. More sparks are flying around. This option is well suited for bonfire signals.
Material from oak or hornbeam forms excellent heat and a small fire. Burning lasts about two hours. This is a good condition for cooking. This bonfire does not need to be made very large. After all, you need to work with dishes and cooked dishes.
In areas where there is a shortage of vegetation, dry peat and absolutely dry animal droppings are used as fuel.
How to breed correctly, conveniently and quickly? Here we need materials that are rapidly ignited: dry grass, moss, birch bark, reeds, conifer bark, small wood chips with resin.
In the rain, it is better to use birch bark. It is almost always dry.
The kindling is a pyramid. Set on fire. It does not hurt to take from home:
- dry alcohol capsules,
- elements of rubber and plexiglass.
In rain, kindling will help a special liquid on the basis of paraffins, for example - "Forester".
It is strictly forbidden to use gasoline. Firewood will not be kindled. And you are poisoned.
The main thing in this matter is not to soak or spoil the matches. They are dipped up to 1/4 of the length in paraffin. They are placed in a sealed plastic or metal container.
If there are no matches, and the weather is sunny, a magnifier and lenses from optics will help. In some situations, the glass is removed from the watch. Water is poured there. In winter, a piece of ice is straight polished lentils.
Sunlight sets fire to tinder. It is created from very fine foliage of bark with resins, cotton wool, fluff, etc.
You can get fire by the taiga method: rub the bow, drill and supporting components. Supports can be material from oak, birch or cut along dry bamboo stems. In fact, this method takes a lot of time and effort and is rarely used. Of course, today a lighter is taken on a camping trip.
And another reliable way is flint. For example, you can buy a version that has a magnesium rod. It forms a powerful spark.
This or that type of fire is used depending on the goals and conditions.
So, its varieties and collection rules are as follows:
- Hut. Firewood forms a house or hut. Kindling position: bottom side between logs. This type is well suited for cooking and lighting. A serious supply of firewood is needed. It’s not difficult to burn without matches.
- Well. It has a log house format. Short but thick logs or logs are used (for a serious fire). Inside are small firewood folded by a hut and a small pile.
- Fireplace. A great option for heating at night. Its burning lasts almost until the morning. It is formed by four short logs folded as in item 2. On one side, an inclined wall is made: you need to drive in two thick stake in an inclined position. Massive logs are stacked on top of each other. The bonfire is organized inside the structure. By the degree of burning of the lower elements (logs), the upper elements smoothly appear below.
- Nodya. Need large logs. Length - maximum 3 m, minimum diameter - 30 cm. Dry trunks of pines and other coniferous species are usually used. First, with an ax, rounds are made along the entire length of the logs. The chips are not completely eliminated. Then the logs are laid out in the longitudinal direction, one to the second. They are fixed on the sides with stakes. The number of stakes is 4. Their material is wet wood. They drive into the ground. There is a version with three logs. There is no fence in it. Two elements have a parallel position to the ground. They are arranged close to each other. The third element lies on them. Between them are wet pegs. This increases the air flow. Then the kindling is placed there.
- Star. For any tasks for its formation, 5-10 massive elements are used. These are logs or logs. Their length: 2-3 m. They add up the endings in the format of a star. By the degree of combustion, the elements move toward the middle. If the bonfire is small, it gives a narrow and hot flame. This is an excellent condition for cooking. It is important not to leave the “star" unattended.
- Taiga look. On a log with a solid length at an acute angle and a slight inlet (not more than 50 cm), 3-4 other logs are placed. The main function of this kind: heating.
- Polynesia. This is a foundation pit. Its approximate depth is -1 m. It narrows like a cone. Massive elements are used to lining its walls. A bonfire is arranged at the bottom. This species generates many coals. This is the best option in rainy, cold and very windy weather.
If it’s bad to make a fire, they must be sprinkled with a handful of salt.
Massive parts of birch bark, when burned, are wound into a tube. So the fire goes out. For this reason, for the kindling, use small triangular parts of the bark from the birch. Bend them in half.
When there is a need for the preservation and transfer of fire in a new area, put the coals in empty tin cans or in birch bark, folded in a pipe.
Whatever type of bonfire you make, you must always comply with PPB. After all, sanctions for ignition are strict today. It is important which paragraph of the code (law) you violate, be held accountable. It matters who you are: an ordinary citizen, an official, an enterprise representative. How much fine? Minimum –1500 rub. The maximum is 50,000 rubles.