Many are interested in why a floating anchor is needed. The device is required to slow down the ship, which crashed or lost the ability to sail. This is especially true in cases where an emergency is observed near a waterway, from which it is not recommended to move away.
However, the level of efficiency of the device is confirmed on small vessels, especially on sailing types. For larger vessels, their use by experts is called into question. In addition, no corresponding experiments were carried out.
Varieties of anchors and benefits
The main objective of this device is to keep the boat or yacht in place, despite the wind, waves, current velocity, etc. Since ancient times, since a man launched the first boat into the water, he has been using the anchor. And if thousands of years ago they used ordinary stone, which was tied with a rope, then in the modern world there are many types of it, for every taste and suitable for a vessel of any kind and size, from an inflatable boat to a transatlantic liner.
Since the Middle Ages, when they began to use iron in the manufacture of anchors, many varieties of them appeared. The main modern types are:
- Danforth's anchor
- Hall anchor
The main task is to keep the ship in place by engaging the bottom, but only an anchor, called a floating one, performs this task without direct contact with the bottom soil.
In the event that the boat or sailing yacht must slow down and stay in place, and weather and environmental conditions are unfavorable (strong current, wind, high wave), the use of a conventional anchor is difficult, because when you stop, a light vessel at a usual anchor becomes unstable, it starts to twist and toss on the waves. And if a yacht or boat turns side to side, the vessel may tip over.
The next advantage of the floating option is that it can be used at great depths, where the usual one does not reach the bottom, respectively, the vessel will not be able to stay in place.
Also, a floating anchor is used in case of unforeseen situations when the vessel cannot move further (accident), but cannot deviate from the chosen course and is forced to drift until assistance arrives.
The floating option is used on small boats, such as boats (inflatable, PVC, etc.) of various types, as well as sailing yachts. Practice has shown that the use of the floating option on large vessels is ineffective. Small vessels, however, are always equipped with structures of two types - a conventional and a floating anchor.
Dimensions are of great importance, because the effectiveness of its use depends on this, just like when choosing the usual main parameter - weight. It should be sufficient to hold the ship in place. For a floating anchor, the main parameter is the dimensions that can cope with the strength of the current and keep the ship or boat in place.
What does a floating anchor look like and how does it work?
This species has a truncated conical shape, made of waterproof fabrics such as tarpaulins, canvas, etc. A metal hoop is sewn into its base, this is done in order to strengthen the structure. In fact, it is a net with a cut off end, but the handle has been replaced with slings that are attached to the main rope connecting the device to a boat or yacht. The number of lines is usually 4 pcs. Also, a cable is attached to its base for pulling it out of the water. The design is equipped with a buoy, which indicates its location in the water relative to the vessel.
Lowering into the water is carried out from the bow of the vessel, the device is located with its base in its direction, is held with the help of an anchor rope, the buoy is located on the surface. The dome is filled with water, straightens out, the ship turns its nose in the direction of the wind, and is held in place due to the resistance of the dome to the flow. As a result, the drift decreases, the boat does not turn side to side, takes a fairly stable position. According to the mechanism of action, it is similar to a parachute in the air.
In a storm at sea, oil or animal fat can be used additionally. They are known to dampen waves, forming on the surface of the sea the thinnest fat film that prevents the formation of ridges. As a result, the kinetic energy of the wave is suppressed, which prevents it from turning over or destroying the vessel.
A floating anchor is of several types, differing in shape:
- conical. It has the shape of a truncated cone, a metal hoop is sewn along the edge to strengthen the base,
- pyramidal.It looks like a truncated pyramid, the base is strengthened with a metal or wooden cross,
- parachute. It is made in the form of a dome, according to the principle of a parachute,
- stormy. This view is a rail to which a triangular plate is attached, and an iron anchor is attached to its lower edge for weighting. A sling is attached to the end of each corner, 3 slings are attached to the main rope,
- hordes of Jordan. A kind of storm anchor, consists of several cone-shaped floating anchors on one rope, during a storm it is more effective than a single device.
In a storm, it is also possible to manufacture a floating anchor from improvised materials - oars or with a pressure hook. A piece of tarp, a canvas cover or even a sail is tied to this impromptu crosspiece. A regular iron anchor is attached to one of the corners for greater severity, the slings from the ends are tied to a rope. When lowered into the water, this home-made structure will take a vertical position and will act on the principle of a real floating anchor.
As a material for the manufacture, a waterproof canvas is used, ranging from polyethylene to tarpaulin and canvas. The life of such a product depends on the material.
How to do it yourself?
Some lovers prefer to make various devices themselves, this also applies to such a device as a floating anchor. The main task in this case is to determine all working sizes. If for ordinary anchors the main parameter is the weight, which should be 1% of the weight of the vessel with the maximum load, then in the case of the floating option, the dimensions of the dome (outer and inner diameters), the length of the slings and the main rope will be fundamental.
Usually, a pattern originally built on paper is used for sewing. You will also need material, it should be a dense, rigid fabric with waterproof properties (tarpaulin, canvas, etc.), a rope and special glue.
The pattern is laid out on the fabric, cut the workpiece. If the fabric is very dense, you can sew a dome of several parts. With this manufacturing option, every part needs to be left with seam allowances. Then the workpiece is sewn with strong threads, it is better to use synthetics, because It has high weather resistant qualities.
Further, a hoop for the base of the structure is made of durable material. If the shape is pyramidal, then make a cross to which the edges of the fabric blank are attached. After this, the slings are sewn, most often 4 of them. If, when hanging, the anchor hangs strictly parallel to the ground, then it is balanced, if not, then the distance between the slings is adjusted. In conclusion, the slings are assembled into a knot and sewn to the main rope. All seams must be treated with waterproof glue, for example, sealant.
Where can I buy?
If you do not want to spend time making an anchor with your own hands, you can purchase it in a store. Usually they are sold in specialized stores selling goods for outdoor activities, tourism, hunting and fishing. You can also buy it in the online store. Prices depend on the seller and the size required. The table shows examples of prices and addresses of store sites.
|Score||Internet site||Price range, rub.|
|"Aliexpress"||https://en.aliexpress.com/popular/drift-anchor.html||672,49 – 3998,59|
|"Active Hunt"||https://active-hunt.ru/catalog/oborud/shvartovoe-oborudovanie/yakorya/?view=list||1350,00 – 4730,00|
|Shvartov.ru||http://www.shvartov.ru/collection/yakorya||1079,00 – 2200,00|
|"Moreman SPb"||https://www.moreman.spb.ru/?p=190-yakorya||1395,00 – 2668,00|
|"1000 sizes"||https://vodnik.1000size.ru/yakorya||1250,00 – 10759,00|
The price range depends on the manufacturer, the quality of the material and size. In order to make a choice, you need to know what size it should have (depending on the size of the boat or yacht), preferred material of manufacture, etc.
A floating anchor is very effective in conditions of great depths, strong currents in combination with the wind, it helps a small vessel to keep its nose to the wave, while maintaining stability in conditions when a conventional anchor is unable to help. This device is safe for boats of any material, even rubber and PVC. All owners of small vessels are recommended to have, in addition to the usual anchor, floating as well, as the most effective in difficult weather and natural conditions.
2. Creating blanks - "logs" for the formation of the frame of the boat
A simple raft or a boat made of plastic bottles is built on the same principle. First, the required number of long "logs" is formed. They add up as follows. We take two whole containers and connect them to the bottom to the bottom, pre-lubricated with plastic glue. At the same time, you need to attach them so that the protruding parts of the bottom of one bottle, as if in grooves, go into the concave parts of the bottom of the second. Having clasped them in this way, we additionally fix them with a plastic cylinder, obtained after the bottom and neck were cut off from the third bottle. To hide the necks looking in different directions, we take two more bottles and cut off the necks. We put on a container, lubricated with waterproof glue, on the workpiece, and additionally wrap all the joints with wide tape. If this is not done, then water may get inside, and the boat will not stay on the water. We continue to collect the boat skeleton, not forgetting to hook, lubricate and wind everything correctly. If the collection and sealing of the blanks was successful, then you are unlikely to have to repair the boat in the near future. The length of the "logs" is determined by the dimensions of the bot.
3. The formation of the frame
It is necessary to combine the resulting "logs" in eight units. This is called "floats." They can have either more or less plastic “logs”, it all depends on the design of the boat and the size of the container. Connect them to the "floats" with a thin wire. Other options are the same wide and waterproof tape. Separate joints are additionally coated with waterproof glue for plastic. The design of the frame can change during the assembly, because the most important thing is to provide not an attractive appearance, but stability on the water and the ability to withstand heavy weight.
4. Boat collection
The simplest construction to make is a raft. It is made as follows. First, the floats are connected to each other with the help of crossbars made of wood or plastic pipe. They are wrapped with wire of small diameter so as not to burden the boat. After that, a sheet of plastic or plywood is laid on the structure, which is also attached to the crossbars. Very interesting boats from plastic bottles are obtained in the form of a canoe. You can come up with your own design, most importantly, do not forget about its safety and reliability.
5. Making oars
You can try to make everything completely out of plastic. Even the oars. To do this, it is necessary to flatten two plastic bottles with a volume of 2.5 liters and wind the necks to a thin wooden pole. The plastic of the bottle must be very tight, otherwise the oar will bend under the pressure of water. You can take other unnecessary materials, for example, make blades from empty cold accumulators.
How does a floating anchor work?
The basis of the product is dense fabric. The floating anchor, the photo of which is presented below, is made of canvas.
As a rule, the device has the shape of a cone or a pyramid, the base of which is disclosed. The latter is fixed by means of a hoop made of metal or cruciform beams. Four slings are connected to it, with the help of which there is fastening to the anchor rope.
A pulling cable is attached to the top of the cone, which pulls the anchor. The device has a buoy used to lower and raise the device. You can also determine where the product is located by the buoy.
Ways to use floating anchors
The data are taken from the annual journal RORC 1999. The materials are quite interesting, since in the domestic literature the methods for using floating anchors are outlined and do not give a complete answer about the advisability of their use in stormy weather. Soviet experts only casually noted that they are used for iol.
A thoroughly floating anchor is considered in the work of C. Adlard Coles “Sailing in a Storm”. The author notes that the drift created by the device more effectively reduces drift in windy weather (the size of the yacht should correspond to the size of the device).
The main danger lies in the fact that when yawing, the yacht can turn lag to the wave and roll over. Yawing causes a load on the anchor and the rope. In reverse, the steering wheel may break. It becomes clear that when using the device on a modern yacht with a short keel, the ship should be put in the stern with a sail to maintain direction to the floating anchor. This will ensure the safety of the craft.
A floating anchor for a boat, a boat and an aftermast is suitable. However, Mizzen’s endurance on the aftershtag has a limit. Therefore, according to Coles, the use of a floating anchor is not always justified. Provided that keeping the yacht in the wind is optimal, and the steering load is reduced, the yacht will become as if tied to the stern. It will not swing, which can cause it to flood. The yacht will substitute the cockpit for the water.
It should be noted that all the conclusions of the author belong to the middle of the last century. Over the years, the modification of the yachts has undergone strong changes, and the cockpits began to drain the water themselves. Changing the design allowed us to take a fresh look at the problem of using such anchors. Today, such a device is advised to have any yachtsman who goes to the open sea.
Almost all types of rafts have a floating anchor. It was developed by the National Maritime Institute of Great Britain (NMI). The device is large. Its surface is porous. Along with large pockets for ballast, it has high efficiency against raft overturning. Tests conducted in Iceland proved that, despite the storm, the raft remains afloat. The second function of the anchor is to slow the drift.
Floating anchors on modern yachts
A test was conducted for the RORC at the University of Southampton. It proved that the floating anchor is able to keep the yacht afloat at high waves. The device helps to reduce the speed of the vessel and holds it downwind. Model tests revealed that the yacht repeatedly avoided lag turns and wave overturns.
The floating anchor is recommended for both single-hull and multihull models of yachts. The position of the device from the stern suggests that heavy waves will fall on this part of the vessel. For this reason, all openings must be hermetically sealed. This is of great importance in a special code of practice, which states that yachts must be durable and waterproof. This applies especially to the hull, cabin and deck, which must withstand the onslaught of water.
It is required that the hatches and embedded boards covering the main entrance be attached to the yacht with a strong sling. The roofs of the cockpit lockers also need close attention. They play a huge role in the water resistance of a ship. If these essential parts are lost or damaged, then the water falling on the stern will get inside and quickly fill the yacht.
The Transport Department has set the size of floating anchors for life rafts and lifeboats. The diameter of the pipe should be
10 to 15% LWL yachts. A sailing master can make such a floating anchor with his own hands.
Floating anchor boat
If the vessel cannot reach the shore, enter the bay or choose a place convenient for mooring, and also unable to stay in the wind by means of the rudder, then resort to the use of a floating anchor. Adaptation will reduce drift.
At great depths, the device makes it possible to put the ship against the wave. At the same time, the anchor is on the bow of the vessel, in the water it is filled. Then a rope is pulled, which slows down the movement of the boat, turning her nose towards the wind.
The length of the rope should be at least five lengths of a small vessel. The cable is released in a weakened state. Он должен быть не короче каната для якоря.
Чтобы ослабить удар волн о судно и предотвратить заливание, применяют специальные масла. Наибольшей эффективностью обладают масла животного происхождения. Растекаясь по водной глади, они создают пленку, мешающую образованию гребней и гасящую энергию волн.
Mineral oils have lower functionality. On small vessels, it is not recommended to use them.
How to use oil?
Oil is periodically poured from the windward side. A mop moistened in it is suspended from the same edge.
There is another way, more economical. Holes are made in a canvas bag or a metal can, into which a crushed cork, rags or hemp are laid. Inside, oil is poured. Then the container closes, the bag is tied, attached to the anchor rope and etched.
A tench is also threaded through the floating anchor so that both ends are on the ship. Then a bag or can is attached to the line. They must be moved to the anchor at a distance of several meters from it. An empty bag or can is pulled out onto the vessel and refilled with oil. For tench on a floating anchor, it is recommended to stock up on a block. The bag or can is suspended from the anchor rope as a float at such a height that they can reach the wave. Oil flowing out of a can or bag covers the surface of the water with a film.
Making floating anchors for boats made of PVC do-it-yourself. Process features
The floating anchor for a PVC boat should have a size of 2, 5 to 4 m. It all depends on the size of the vessel. With the help of slings the speed of the boat is regulated.
The basis of the home-made design is the dome. The material may be thick polyethylene, a synthetic material. The life of the product depends on this.
It is important that in the center of such a parachute there should be a hole with a diameter of 10-15 cm. Water will enter through it. It is adjustable with a cord. The diameter of the dome, depending on the size of the boat, is 120-150 cm.
Loops are sewn along the length of the circle, through which a rope is drawn that tightens the anchor. There are designs that are mounted on strips. On the top of them is a bottle. The lower part of the anchor should be heavier.
The longer the rope, through which the anchor is attached to the boat, the more effective the device will be. For example, with a line length of 1.5 m, the length of the rope should be 10 m.
Second manufacturing method
As a rule, this is a rectangular floating anchor. The open hole of the device in this case may have a quadrangular, triangular or any other shape. You can make a floating anchor for a boat with your hands from an oar pole.
It must be large in thickness. A canvas in the shape of a triangle is attached to it. A load is attached to the lower corner of the material.
Often, PVC boats use a vane type anchor or a truncated cone device. This device is made of canvas. The diameter of the base is approximately 40 cm, the length of the device is 120 cm, and the diameter at the top of the cone in the section is 3 cm. The base of the cone is entwined with a lyktros and reinforced with four longitudinal stripes of a similar cable. It ends with a loop for attaching drifts.
Do-it-yourself floating anchor for a PVC boat can be made using another method. This design involves the use of a ring of wire with a diameter of 6-8 mm. For the device, a Soviet-made hula-hoop made of durable high-quality aluminum is ideally suited. It is optimal in shape and size. The size of this device will allow you to stay afloat a small boat made of PVC in the stream and ensure its optimal speed during fishing.
If there is no hula hoop, then the ring is made of wire. Then the hoop is fitted with a thin tarpaulin, but it is also possible with polyethylene. The canvas is stretched so that there is no sagging. The circle is divided into three equal parts, to which meter ropes are tied. Their ends are connected. A 5 liter plastic bottle is tied to the top, and a load is attached to the bottom. So the anchor in the water will take a vertical position and will be able to hold a stream of current.
If fishing is carried out in windy weather, the plastic bottle is replaced with a half-liter capacity. In this case, the floating anchor does not go much into the water column, and the waves are not dangerous. The system does not inflate like a sail and stably holds the vessel in the required stream.
It is advised to lower the device from the boat by no more than 5 m. It is not further advised, since the tool can turn the anchor with its mass, and the meaning of the device will be lost.
Carrying such a simple device is recommended if you are fishing in reservoirs. The diameter of the ring is selected depending on the size of the boat made of PVC.
It should be noted that if there is no aluminum hoop, then you can resort to the use of branches with leaves. Branches are cut down and tightly connected. A small load is attached to them. The bottle is not tied, as the branches have excellent buoyancy. Such a device is inferior in functionality to an anchor based on a hoop, but copes with its task.