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Provinces of Canada and its Territory - English translation

Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories.

Provinces - Sovereign administrative units that exist on the basis of the Canadian constitution and have supreme authority within their competence, regardless of the federal government.

Canadian territories - administrative units under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Federal Parliament, which by ordinary law grants certain powers to their local administrations.

Provinces and Territories

The distribution of powers, or the boundaries of the respective competences of the federal government and provinces, is mainly provided for in Articles 91, 92 and 93 of Constitutional Act 1867. Matters not covered by the constitution are the responsibility of the federal government, which is what the expression residual powers.

Each province has its own parliament, its own government (prime minister, ministers), its own lieutenant governor, its own budget, its own courts, etc. The provincial competencies include, in particular, private property and civil rights, social programs, healthcare, education, administration of justice, municipal institutions, etc. Provinces can raise income tax and charge a license fee. Some of them receive transfer and / or equalization payments from the federal government based on administrative agreements between the two levels of government.

The Territory is an administrative unit that the Federal Parliament allowed to have a legislative assembly, but which remains subordinate to the Governor-General of Canada and under the jurisdiction of the Government of Canada in the person of a commissioner appointed by the House of Commons. Territories are always formed legislatively by the Parliament of Canada. In the territories there is a political movement advocating the legal change of the status of the territory into the status of a province.

Provincial and territorial legislatures are unicameral, two provinces (Quebec and Nova Scotia) have abolished their legislative council (the upper house is not elected) in order to preserve only the elected legislative assembly. The provincial legislature procedure is similar to that of the Canadian House of Commons. The head of government of each province, called the prime minister, is usually the head of the party with the most seats in the legislature. The same thing happens in the Yukon. The legislative bodies of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut have no parties. In each province, the queen is represented by lieutenant governors, in the territories they are equivalent to commissars representing the federal government rather than the queen themselves, but generally performing the symbolic functions of the lieutenant governor.

Federal authorities and their relationship with the provincial and territorial authorities

CanadaGovernor GeneralPrime MinisterParliamentParliamentarian
The senateHouse of CommonsSenatorDeputy
QuebecLieutenant GovernorPrime Ministern / aNational Assemblyn / aMember of the National Assembly
OntarioLegislative AssemblyMember of the Legislative Assembly
Newfoundland and LabradorAssembly chamberMember of the House of Assembly
Nova ScotiaMember of the Legislative Assembly
Other provincesLegislative Assembly
TerritoriesCommissionerPrime Minister

Provinces and Territories

In the table, units are listed in order of entry into the Canadian Confederation.

(By clicking on the name of the city or the image of any province, the transition to the corresponding article will be carried out.)

Provinces of Canada and its Territories

Alberta - The western province, which is located between British Columbia on the left and Saskatchewan on the right. The strong economy of this province of Canada relies mainly on the oil industry, given the abundance of natural resources.

This province has an abundance of diverse natural landscapes such as forests, parts of the Canadian Rockies, flat prairies, glaciers, canyons, and many farmland. Alberta has a large number of national parks where you can see wildlife. For urban areas, Calgary and Edmonton are popular big cities.

British columbia

British columbiaBC is briefly called the westernmost province of Canada, its western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean. Many mountain ranges pass through British Columbia, including the Rockies, Selkirks, and Purcells. Vancouver is the capital of British Columbia, a world-class city famous for many attractions, including the 2010 Winter Olympics.

Unlike the rest of Canada, the first peoples of British Columbia are the indigenous peoples who originally lived on these lands, for the most part, they never signed official territorial treaties with Canada. Thus, the official property of the main part of the territory of this province of Canada is disputed.

Manitoba - The central province of Canada and adjacent to Ontario in the east, Saskatchewan in the west, northwestern territories in the north and the United States in the south. Manitoba's economy is heavily dependent on agricultural and natural resources.

New brunswick

New brunswick - The only officially declared bilingual province of Canada, located north of the US state of Maine east of Quebec. The Atlantic Ocean washes its eastern shore. A beautiful province, the tourist industry of New Brunswick promotes its five main scenic routes: the Acadia coast route, the Appalachian adventure, the coastal journey along the Bay of Fundy, the Miramichi river route and a walk in the St. John River Valley.

Newfoundland and Labrador

It is the most northeastern province. Newfoundland and Labrador Industry (Newfoundland and labrador) - this is energy, fishing, tourism and mining of minerals such as gold, silver, nickel, copper, zinc, and iron ore.

The economies of Newfoundland and Labrador are also heavily dependent on fisheries. When the cod fishery collapsed, it greatly affected the province and led to economic depression. In recent years, unemployment in Newfoundland and Labrador has stabilized, and the economy is growing.

Northwest Territories

Northwest Territories - NWT- Border with the territories of Nunavut and Yukon, as well as with British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan. As one of Canada’s northernmost provinces, the territories contain part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Canadian Arctic Archipelago) From the point of view of nature, the Arctic tundra and boreal forests (taiga) dominate in this territory.

Nova Scotia

Geographically Nova scotiaunites the peninsula and the island of Cape Breton (Cape breton island) Almost completely surrounded by water, the province borders the Gulf of St. Lawrence (St. Lawrence), Northumberland Strait (Northumberland strait) and the Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic ocean).

Nova Scotia is famous for its low tide and seafood, especially lobsters and fish. She is also notorious for the shipwrecks on Sable Island (Sable island).

Nunavut - The largest and most northern territory of Canada, as it makes up 20% of the land mass of the country and 67% of the coastline. Despite its sheer size, it is Canada's second least populated province.

Most of its land consists of a rocky Arctic archipelago, covered with snow and ice, which is unsuitable for living. There is no highway in Nunavut. Instead, transit is by air or sometimes snowmobiles. Inuit (Inuit) constitute a significant part of the population of Nunavut.

Ntario - the second largest province in Canada. It is also the most populous province, as it houses the capital of Ottawa and the world-class city of Toronto. In the minds of many Canadians, Ontario is divided into two regions: north and south. Northern Ontario is mostly uninhabited. Instead, it is rich in natural resources, which explains why its economy is heavily dependent on forestry and mining. Southern Ontario, on the other hand, is industrialized, urbanized, and serves the markets of Canada and the United States.

Prince Edward Island

The smallest province in Canada - Prince Edward Island - PEI, famous for its red soil, beaches and the potato industry. PEI beaches are known for their singing sands. Walking along such sand you can hear sounds caused by the movement of layers of sand.

PEI is also known for the novel by L.M. Montgomery "Anne from the Green Roofs (Anne of green gables) ". The book was first published in 1908, and 19,000 copies were sold in the first five months. Since Anne of green gables was adapted for the stage, musicals, television series and films.

Quebec- The second most populous province after Ontario. Quebec is a predominantly French-speaking society, and Quebec (Quebecois) very proud of their language and culture.

Defending and promoting their special culture, Quebecers hold debates on the independence of their province, which are an essential part of local politics. Referenda on sovereignty took place in 1980 and 1995, but both were rejected. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada recognized Quebec as a nation in a united Canada. (nation within a united Canada) The most famous cities in the province are Quebec and Montreal.

Saskatchewan

SaskatchewanIt has many prairies, boreal forests and about 100,000 lakes. Like all Canadian provinces and territories, many indigenous peoples live in Saskatchewan. In 1992, the Canadian government signed a historic land claims agreement at the federal and provincial levels that gave the First Saskatchewan Nations compensation and permission to purchase land on the open market.

The westernmost territory of Canada, Yukon (Yukon) has the smallest population compared to other provinces and territories. Historically, the main industry of the Yukon was gold mining and had a large influx of population due to the gold rush (gold rush). This exciting period in Canadian history was described by Jack London. This story and the natural beauty of the Yukon make tourism an important part of the Yukon economy.

French provinces in the minority. But not really.

To begin with, Francophone Canada, in fact, is limited to only one province of Quebec. There is a second province called New Brunswick, which is Canada's only official bilingual, bilingual province. All other provinces are English-speaking.

However, as I have said more than once, I agree with the Law “On Languages” of 1969. English and French are equally used languages ​​in state authorities and are protected by a linguistic minority if one of the languages ​​is used in a territory where it is not the main language .

That is, if we are talking about English, then this is the problem of the English language in Quebec. If we are talking about French, then this is the problem of the French language throughout the rest of Canada. There are separate schools that are subsidized by the federal government precisely within the framework of this 1969 law.

The scary word is landing

I’ll do a little digression regarding the landing. Just a lot of people are already asking what Landing is. Landing is a formal legal procedure that all immigrants go through when crossing the state border of Canada for the first time - it does not matter whether it is land, air, or sea.

Accordingly, many people think that if you received an immigrant visa in your passport, then everything, permanent residence in your pocket, you are already a full-fledged immigrant, a full-fledged Canadian. However, I want to upset you. The legal status of a permanent resident is determined at the airport, or at the seaport, or at the land point where you cross the border for the first time. And the immigration officer, who is located in the immigration point of Canada, looks at your documents that you brought with you from your homeland, and only when he hands you a professional flaming, only at that moment you become a permanent resident of Canada. Up to this point, you are, so to speak, a rootless cosmopolitan, an immigrant incomprehensible, but who has a low chance of becoming a Canadian citizen.

Naturally, as a rule, in 99% of cases this is quite a formal procedure, and by default people get the status of a resident of Canada. But, nevertheless, there is a certain percentage of people who are wrapped up, but this is at the level of scary stories.

Just for you to understand again. The landing process is the process of completing the processing of your documents that you brought with you from your homeland, at the office of the Ministry of Immigration on the border of Canada, as a result of which your status as a foreigner changes to permanent resident status by issuing confidential flaming to you - confirmation that you were landing.

Quebec Program Advantage

Now for the immigration program. As you know, there are provincial immigration programs, globally, and federal immigration programs. The federal immigration program is calculated, by default, only in English-speaking provinces. There is a clear list of professions, there is a clear list of requirements that apply to candidates who want to immigrate to Canada in general. That is, they want to receive the status of permanent resident of Canada and, accordingly, upon arrival after landing they decide where exactly they want to live.

The administrative division of Canada into provinces and territories