Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories.
Provinces - Sovereign administrative units that exist on the basis of the Canadian constitution and have supreme authority within their competence, regardless of the federal government.
Canadian territories - administrative units under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Federal Parliament, which by ordinary law grants certain powers to their local administrations.
Provinces and Territories
The distribution of powers, or the boundaries of the respective competences of the federal government and provinces, is mainly provided for in Articles 91, 92 and 93 of Constitutional Act 1867. Matters not covered by the constitution are the responsibility of the federal government, which is what the expression residual powers.
Each province has its own parliament, its own government (prime minister, ministers), its own lieutenant governor, its own budget, its own courts, etc. The provincial competencies include, in particular, private property and civil rights, social programs, healthcare, education, administration of justice, municipal institutions, etc. Provinces can raise income tax and charge a license fee. Some of them receive transfer and / or equalization payments from the federal government based on administrative agreements between the two levels of government.
The Territory is an administrative unit that the Federal Parliament allowed to have a legislative assembly, but which remains subordinate to the Governor-General of Canada and under the jurisdiction of the Government of Canada in the person of a commissioner appointed by the House of Commons. Territories are always formed legislatively by the Parliament of Canada. In the territories there is a political movement advocating the legal change of the status of the territory into the status of a province.
Provincial and territorial legislatures are unicameral, two provinces (Quebec and Nova Scotia) have abolished their legislative council (the upper house is not elected) in order to preserve only the elected legislative assembly. The provincial legislature procedure is similar to that of the Canadian House of Commons. The head of government of each province, called the prime minister, is usually the head of the party with the most seats in the legislature. The same thing happens in the Yukon. The legislative bodies of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut have no parties. In each province, the queen is represented by lieutenant governors, in the territories they are equivalent to commissars representing the federal government rather than the queen themselves, but generally performing the symbolic functions of the lieutenant governor.
Federal authorities and their relationship with the provincial and territorial authorities
|Canada||Governor General||Prime Minister||Parliament||Parliamentarian|
|The senate||House of Commons||Senator||Deputy|
|Quebec||Lieutenant Governor||Prime Minister||n / a||National Assembly||n / a||Member of the National Assembly|
|Ontario||Legislative Assembly||Member of the Legislative Assembly|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||Assembly chamber||Member of the House of Assembly|
|Nova Scotia||Member of the Legislative Assembly|
|Other provinces||Legislative Assembly|
Provinces and Territories
In the table, units are listed in order of entry into the Canadian Confederation.
|The administrative division of Canada into provinces and territories|