Two centuries ago, the French navigator Louis Antoine de Bougainville and the naturalist Carnerson gave Europe an evergreen flowering plant, immortalizing the name of the traveler in the title. Bougainvillea, a resident of the rainforests from Brazil, is beautiful, but a lady with character.
A tropical plant in nature is represented by small trees, shrubs and vines. Several varieties took root in the culture, which allowed breeders to domesticate the plant and create hybrids. Bougainvilleas are valued for decorative bracts - modified leaves that are located around a small inflorescence. Framing leaves are painted in bright shades of lilac. In culture, the color palette is inexhaustible. Tropicana settled on the windowsills, in greenhouses and conservatories.
Agricultural technology requirements:
- temperature conditions - vegetation at temperatures above 12 0 С, flowering requires 21-27 0 С, rest at 5-10, while the brief effect of zero temperature is destructive,
- dry sunny weather without prolonged rains,
- lack of drafts and strong winds,
- watering plentifully with soft defended water, but without stagnant excessive moisture,
- spacious room, free accommodation,
If the conditions of detention of the bougainvillea are not fulfilled, it stops flowering and discards the leaves.
Bougainvillea, breeding at home
In native tropical forests, caliber butterflies and birds spread plant seeds through the forest. Getting in favorable conditions, a sprout appears. All vines in the internodes are able to take root, and the branch takes root, there is a layering that grows over time.
In cultural breeding use:
- seed reproduction
- propagation by rooted layering.
For hybrids, vegetative propagation preserves the obtained decorative properties completely. It is difficult to obtain seeds at home and they are very small, they are in boxes.
Prepare a sterile substrate of peat and sand in equal proportions. Soak the seeds before sowing in a growth stimulator. Organize the bottom heating of the container for seedlings. The temperature of the substrate should be 27-30 0 C, seedlings will appear in 2-3 months. Therefore, the bowl in which bougainvillea from seeds develops should be covered from above from drying out the soil, but should be regularly ventilated and moistened with a fine spray over the surface. During winter sowing, the container should be illuminated with a lamp located at a distance of 25 cm from the soil surface.
Cuttings are used in the spring and during the summer months. Lignified shoots are suitable. The green stalk is cut obliquely under the kidney. The operation is performed under sterile conditions. After a little drying, a slice and removing the lower leaves, the slice is treated with a rooting agent.
The mixture for propagation should be sterile:
- turf land - 35%,
- sheet land - 35%,
- peat - 20%,
- quartz sand - 10%.
Lower the stem to the second kidney in the substrate, set a greenhouse above it with a temperature of 25 0, ventilate and maintain the soil in a wet state. In a month, roots will appear and the stalk is ready for transfer to a permanent bowl.
In another way, bougainvillea is propagated by cuttings sprouted before the formation of callus in the water. Ready to root plant is planted immediately in a pot. In this case, increased humidity around the upper part of the cuttings is important. Germination in water is not always successful. For young plants, sand must be added to ordinary soil.
The easiest way to breed bougainvillea is to root the branches, taking advantage of the plant's ability to give air roots in internodes. If the bush grows in the open air, it’s easy to root a twig, it’s enough to take an adult twig, which has not been completely roughened, cut the bark and pin the cuttings into the ground.
Add a mound of earth from above, and raise the top. A month and a half will pass and you can gently extract a bearded branch from the roots, separate it from the main bush and plant it in the prepared soil.
The more space, the faster the vine grows. But it will bloom only after filling the roots of the entire volume of land. Therefore, the container is increased with each transplant, achieving a balance between the growth rate and the number of flowers.
How to root if bougainvillea grows on a windowsill? Then you can choose a ripened twig, gently bend and lower it into a specially hung bowl at the level of the cut bark. The rest is the same.
A more convenient way is shown in the photo. Inside a layer of wet substrate. After rooting, the branch is cut off by secateurs and transferred to the prepared pot. The upper membrane is cut, and the roots are arranged without injury.
It is important to remember that no matter how the roots are received, they are very tender and fragile. Transplantation into a new container should be carried out carefully. The novosadka should be continued to cover from drying out, the roots still do not work. Open gradually, accustoming to normal maintenance.
Young bush care
A young plant needs care. Young branches need to be formed, it is possible that external support will be required. If the bush is healthy, then it begins to bloom quickly. Therefore, it is necessary to create trellises from wire. Special stands made of plastic in the form of a grill are on sale.
In the process of growth, a tree is usually formed from bare bougainvillea. Beautiful, more used as a vine. A prerequisite for obtaining a beautiful plant is the formation of a crown. Pruning branches after flowering, when they go to rest is mandatory. In spring, when new stems grow, they are shortened, forcing the plant to branch and giving it the desired shape.
During the summer, twigs knocked out of the composition are also removed. Bougainvillea accepts pruning well. Created bonsai trees are an adornment of any composition.
The plant is transplanted into a large dish carefully, while using soil composition:
- sheet land - 2 parts,
- turf land - 2 parts,
- humus - 1 part, sand - 1 part.
Charcoal chips and vermiculite will not hurt. Top dressing in the summer to do regularly, apply universal fertilizer. Water, but not fill, and the plant will thank flowering.
Description of Bougainvillea
Bougainvillea belongs to the family of Noctifolia or Niktaginovy.
The plant is a flowering shrub or tree with creeper branches. Thanks to the flexible shoots and thorns, he grabs the support and reaches up.
Leaves are green or light green, they are variegated. Leaves have even, smooth edges. The leaflets are pointed at the end. The size of the egg-shaped leaves is small.
The flowers are white-yellow, nondescript, they quickly fall off. Bracts of unforgettable beauty, which come in different colors: purple. raspberry, pink, white, cream, red.
Among domestic animals, two-color plants are also found.
Their form is also striking in its originality. It is triangular, heart-shaped, round, arrow-shaped. If you touch the bracts to the touch, then they look like the thinnest paper.
Bougainvillea adorns gardens, parks, and facades of houses in cities with a subtropical climate, where mild winters and temperatures do not drop below +5. It is used in landscape design.
The plant can be a decoration at home, and in the summer tubs with bougainvillea are taken out to the site. You can attach it to the garden, so that it seems that it grows directly in the open ground.
Only in this case the flowering period will be reduced. The plant can be in the form of a bush, creeper or bonsai tree, depending on the pruning.
Homemade Bougainvillea Varieties
There are 14 species of bougainvillea. Most of them have spiky thorns, but recently bred varieties do not.
Based on three natural types of plants: bougainvillea naked (smooth), bougainvillea wonderful (beautiful), bougainvillea Peruvian miniature hybrids are bred. These plants successfully interbreed with each other, forming spectacular varieties.
Bougainvillea is naked.
It is a tall shrub 5 m high with lilac, yellow, red, pink, white bracts, pointed glossy leaves of dark green color and small spines.
She easily tolerates pruning, allowing gardeners to give plants any shape. In Latin, it is designated as Bougainvillea glabra.
It is described by the Swiss botanist Jacques Denis Choisy in 1850. The length of the leaves is 10-15 cm and the width is 4-6 cm. In nature, it grows in dry places in Brazil on stony hills with carbonate soils.
Beautiful bougainvillea is grown like a vine.
In Latin, it is called Bougainvillea spectabilis. It can reach a height of 15m, it has red, pink, purple bracts, but they are larger.
With the help of flexible shoots and numerous spikes, she clings to a support and stretches upward, encircling the facades of houses, arbors. Leaves pubescent, dense, heart-shaped.
Inflorescences in the form of panicles bloom from April to October. As flowering bracts turn pale. The rainforests of Brazil are her homeland. Grows on open rocky slopes.
Bougainvillea Peruvian (Bougainvillea peruviana).
It was discovered in 1810 by the German naturalist Humboldt. This is a winding shrub. The flowers are yellow, surrounded by rounded pink and purple bracts. The leaves are egg-shaped, thin, not pubescent. The thorns are short, straight.
This variety does not branch. Long shoots do not give lateral processes. The variety requires pruning to add splendor to the plant. This is a more stable variety.
Peruvian bougainvillea blooms several times a year, especially if there are arid periods between flowering. Distributed in Colombia and Peru. Bracts are pink, terry, have a wrinkled surface.
These 3 species of breeders cultivated and bred new miniature varieties. The best ones are:
"Australian Gold" - terry bracts of a bright orange color, later turn pale and turn pink. The leaves are large, oval in shape, light green in color, sometimes burgundy spots are visible on them. It is a shrub.
Double Lilarose characterized by abundant flowering, terry lilac-pink bracts emphasize the effect of the plant.
"Beggum Sikkander" - A beautiful indoor flower with light green leaves and colorful bracts. Blooming bougainvillea of this variety is delightful. Luxurious bracts of double color make the plant fabulous, magical. A variety with white bracts and purple fringing is widespread.
"White Cascade" different bracts of ivory. Some plants of this variety have a pink fringing on the bracts, which gives elegance to the plant. The leaves are large dark green.
"Double Red" has a beautiful raspberry-fuchsia color, which does not fade, but remains throughout the flowering period. Refers to terry varieties.
Bougainvillea California Gold - Golden bracts at the end of flowering become beige. Sometimes, developing at home, the plant confuses dormancy: it blooms not in summer but in winter.
Features of growing bougainvillea
Bougainvillea is a beautiful houseplant, sometimes grows to large sizes. In apartments, you can rarely meet her, because flower growers are afraid of difficult care for her, but growing a plant is not so difficult. We will talk about the features of caring for him.
In the apartment, the plant should be kept on the south or southwest side. The flower requires a lot of bright light, is not afraid of direct sunlight, it should not be shaded, only in rare cases.
The plant needs additional lighting. On the north side, where there is little light, and in a dark room, home bougainvillea will not survive.
In winter, like other tropical plants, bougainvillea has a dormant period in which it should be watered once a month, but do not allow the root system to dry. The temperature at which the plant should be stored + 8 + 15 degrees, not higher.
In winter, it is necessary to ensure that the roots are not supercooled. At the same time, room bougainvillea should stand in a half-shaded place.
With the end of the dormant period, the plant must immediately be moved to where there is a lot of light. It is better that bougainvillea grows in a greenhouse or insulated loggia.
In summer, bougainvillea can be carried outside, but the place should be calm and the temperature in the room + 22 + 25 degrees. The plant is afraid of drafts, even a little airing can destroy it.
Bougainvillea is a moisture-loving plant. It must be watered often and sprayed every day. To achieve abundant flowering, the plant needs to be fed fertilizers for flowering or complex fertilizer 2 times a week.
Problems When Growing Bougainvillea At Home
If you take care of the flower incorrectly, then problems may appear that spoil the appearance of the plant when it is grown.
- Growth cessation. If the roots do not have enough space in a tight pot, then the growth of bougainvillea slows down or stops. In this case, you need to transplant the plant into a more spacious pot, but only a few centimeters more than the previous one.
- Young leaves are small. For the leaves to continue to grow, introduce top dressing.
- Leaves are yellowed. Yellowness may appear from excessive watering. Lumps of land do not have time to dry out. Stagnation of moisture disrupts the metabolic processes of the plant, as a result of which the leaves turn yellow and fade.
- The flower discards leaves, bracts.
- Bougainvillea does not bloom.
Why does bougainvillea drop leaves?
There are several reasons for a plant dropping leaves:
- indoor plants do not like rearrangements, a change of residence. Buying a flowering, green plant, you are disappointed to find that at home it dropped leaves and bracts. Dont be upset. This is the reaction of the plant to the move. If you follow the rules of caring for the plant, then the flower will soon thank you with abundant flowering and green leaves that have appeared.
- The same problem appears if you transfer a plant from open air to an apartment, move it from one window to another. Sometimes you just have to turn the bougainvillea a little, moving it from its place, as it loses its leaves and bracts. Therefore, be careful and attentive, do not make mistakes when growing bougainvillea,
- change of air temperature in accordance with the season,
- the presence of a draft. The wind, which blows the plant in the garden and on the balcony, negatively affects it. Bougainvillea may appear at an open window or transom when ventilating. She does not tolerate the movement of cold air masses, and therefore is freed from foliage,
- dry air. Hot air coming from heating radiators adversely affects bougainvillea. The plant should be sprayed regularly and kept away from batteries,
- sudden changes in temperature. In August and September, while on a balcony or plot, bougainvillea can freeze from temperatures below +5 degrees. The plant will then lose not only foliage, bracts, but also young shoots,
- violation of the watering regime.
An excess of moisture and its lack destroys the plant. It reacts to improper watering in its own way: when it dries, it leaves the leaves green, when the water stagnates, they first turn yellow and then fall along with the bracts. The plant, as it were, warns the grower of errors in caring for him.
Why bougainvillea does not bloom
Improper care may cause flowering problems. Let us find out the reasons why bougainvillea does not bloom.
- Pot does not fit in size. Sometimes newcomers to growing indoor plants think that planting a plant in a pot for growth is better: you do not need to transplant it often, and the roots have a lot of room for growth and development. In a too spacious pot, water stagnates, mold appears, as a result of which the plant refuses to bloom.
- Lack of dormancy in the winter. If the temperature of the room where bougainvillea grows is above +15 degrees, then it can bloom in winter. And in spring, a flower reluctantly lays buds, blooms sparingly or does not bloom at all.
- Lack of light.
- Cool rainy weather during the summer.
Sometimes the reason for the lack of flowering remains unsolved. You can push the plant to bloom. He needs to arrange a kind of diet.
Within 2-4 weeks, top dressing is stopped and watering is limited. Water the plant only when the topsoil dries out. As soon as you see flower buds at the ends on young shoots, it means that bougainvillea is ready for flowering. Need to resume top dressing and watering.
Diseases and Pests
In nature, bougainvillea resists harmful insects, but at home, spider mites, felt and aphids can appear on it. Every day, you should inspect the leaves, flowers and get rid of pests.
Against spider mites, use the potent drugs Akarin, Kleschevit, Aktara, and against aphids and felts, the insecticides Fufanon, Karbofos, and Biotlin will help
If pests have just appeared or there are not many of them, you can use folk remedies: a decoction of onion husks, potato tops, a strong garlic solution, laundry soap.
To get rid of mealybugs, you need a cotton swab dipped in an alcohol solution to wipe the leaves and stems of the plant.
Тля боится антипаразитарного мыла для домашних животных, раствором которого следует обработать растение. Когда вы применяете инсектициды, закрывайте землю полиэтиленовым пакетом, чтобы капли отравы не попали внутрь горшка.
Every year, young plants need to be replanted, because the roots grow, and there is little room for development. An adult plant needs to be transplanted after 2-3 years.
Each next pot should be 2-3 cm larger than the previous one. Too spacious a pot is not recommended to be taken, because water will accumulate in it, which will negatively affect the processes of its vital activity.
The pot needs to be taken deep. The plant loves heavy ground, so it is better to prepare a nutrient mixture of 2 parts of leafy soil, 2 parts of turf, 1 part of humus, 1 part of sand. Do not forget to put a good drain to successfully remove water from the pot.
Bougainvillea has flexible young shoots that can be given any shape. The sphere, pyramid, wreath looks beautiful. The main thing is to put the backups correctly. Over time, the young shoots become stiff.
In summer, bougainvillea blooms very luxuriantly. You can achieve multi-colored flowering. To do this, it is not necessary to plant varieties, you just need to plant plants of different varieties and colors in the pot, and the crown from bracts of various colors will delight you all summer.
For young stems, you need to make a support and bind them as needed to form a tree trunk. In the first stages of plant formation, stems need not be trimmed.
Trim the stems as they grow. In spring, pruning is necessary to create the shape of a bush and active flowering. Cut last year's stems in half to develop lateral young shoots.
Watering should be carefully monitored, to prevent waterlogging and drying out of the soil. In summer, carry out watering with warm water, and immediately pour water that has leaked from the pot into the pan.
Indoor plant reproduces both in spring and summer, as well as in autumn. Experienced flower growers use semi-lignified cuttings left after pruning for planting.
A special cutting of the plant into cuttings is possible. Plant them in the soil, pre-treated with phytohormones-stimulators of root formation for quick rooting of cuttings.
The temperature of the soil should be at least +25 degrees, therefore, lower heating is used. Cover the pot with glass, regularly spray, ventilate and water moderately.
Propagated by bougainvillea and aerial layering. To do this, choose a flexible layering, not yet woody. Incisions are made on it. The incision is bent and fixed with a hairpin to the ground.
When it gives rise to the root system, it can be transplanted into a separate pot.
In order to root the cuttings faster, put them in warm water for 3 hours, and then hold them in a stimulator or dip in heteroauxin or Kornevin powder. The soil should be taken lighter than for an adult plant, replacing humus with peat.
Today we told you about the rules for caring for bougainvillea, the problems associated with growing plants, revealed the causes of these problems.
We advised you on how to propagate bougainvillea, advised why flower pruning is needed.
If you are interested in a flower, then you can turn to the bougainvillea forum, where gardeners talk about their pets and how to care for them.
At any time, you can ask connoisseurs of advice. Knowledgeable people will give you an exhaustive answer to your question.
Now you know a plant such as bougainvillea, home care that will please you, you will be glad to see the results of your work and admire the southern beauty.
Proper planting is the main component of good growth and intensive flowering of bougainvillea.
There are 3 main components that should be considered when planting a plant:
- optimal soil composition
- the right choice of pot
- choosing a favorable time.
Most often, planting a plant in pots and tubs (depending on size) is practiced.
For planting, a nutritious, but light substrate with good water and air permeability is required. You can simply use the universal soil mixture for flowering plants, which is in any flower shop. But experienced flower growers prefer to prepare the substrate for planting on their own.
To do this, take:
- sheet earth (2 parts),
- turf land (2 parts),
- coarse sand (1 part),
- humus (1 part).
In nature, bougainvillea often grows in a confined space, between stones, so for planting and subsequent transplants, you need to choose a small pot. A spacious flowerpot stimulates intensive growth of shoots and leaf mass to the detriment of flowering, and thin roots can not always quickly master a new volume of soil, which leads to its acidification.
The new pot should exceed the diameter of the old by only a few centimeters. The height of the flowerpot should be greater than the width, and a thick layer of expanded clay should be placed at the bottom.
Location and lighting
In nature, bougainvillea grows on rocky slopes and receives a lot of tropical sun, so at home you need to choose a place with maximum lighting, at least 5 hours of directional light per day. Even on sunny days, the plant does not need shading. The brightness of the bracts and the saturation of the color depend on the light intensity. Bright lighting is necessary in the winter, despite the rest period.
It is difficult to create at home the humidity characteristic of the tropics and subtropics, but this must be sought. Bougainvillea is very fond of high humidity and regular spraying, especially between blooms. During flowering, spraying can be stopped or carried out very carefully so that water does not fall on the bracts. The plant can be placed on a tray with wet pebbles to increase humidity.
Bougainvillea is thermophilic and does not tolerate temperatures well below 10 ° C. The optimum temperature for summer content is considered to be 20-25 ° C, winter - 12-16 ° C. Lowering the temperature is important for laying flower buds and copious flowering. If bougainvillea is kept in warmer conditions in winter, then it needs to be provided with additional lighting.
The plant needs abundant watering, especially during the period of active growth. However, a balance must be struck between dryness and moisture. The earthen lump must be kept moist but not wet. In the fall, bougainvillea stops growth and prepares for a dormant period, so watering must be reduced, and then almost completely stopped. In the autumn-winter period, it is especially important not to overmoisten the substrate and only not to allow too much drying out.
From spring to autumn, bougainvillea needs regular feeding with liquid fertilizer. It is recommended to use fertilizers for flowering and budding as a top dressing, with a low nitrogen content and a high content of potassium, phosphorus and iron. Excess nitrogen retards and weakens flowering.
Trimming and shaping bougainvillea
Pruning - One of the most important aspects of plant care. Pruning is necessary not only to form a beautiful plant, but also to stimulate flowering. This procedure is carried out several times a year. In spring, pruning is performed to remove dried shoots during the winter and weak shoots. In the summer, inflorescences that have lost their decorativeness are cut. Autumn pruning is done to give shape. Shoots are shortened by a third of the length or more, excess cut out.
The formation allows you to give the plant a certain appearance. It can be formed by a single-barrel tree, in a bonsai style, in the form of a multi-barrel bush, or on a support, giving any bizarre shapes depending on its configuration.
Extremely decorative look several plants of different colors, planted in one pot, the shoots of which are intertwined as they grow. Multi-colored plants can also be created with the help of a vaccination on a standard.
When choosing a pot, soil and time for transplanting, you must be guided by the same criteria as when planting. A new flowerpot should be only a few centimeters larger than the previous one. Choosing a pot too large is not worth it, because this negatively affects both flowering and plant health. Thin roots are not able to quickly develop an earthen lump and the earth can sour.
It is advisable not to damage the roots and the earthen lump, but simply transfer the plant into a larger pot, and fill the free space with soil. Transshipment is less traumatic for the roots than transplantation, so the plant tolerates this procedure more easily.
The frequency of transplants depends on the age and growth rate of the plant. Young bougainvilleas are recommended to be transplanted annually or once every 2 years, adults - once every 3-5 years, or as needed.
So the flowering happens
Due to the bright and long flowering, the plant has earned popularity among flower growers. The laying of flower buds occurs in the winter, and with the onset of spring, flowers bloom on the plant, the main charm of which is the bright bracts.
The color of the bracts of the plant may vary depending on the variety and species. They can be white, yellow, peach, purple, purple, purple, pink. Terry buggenvillea is especially beautiful, in which bracts are arranged in several rows.
The flowers are short-lived, but the bracts adorn the plant for a long time. When the bracts lose their decorativeness, the shoot is cut off, leaving 7-8 buds of the young shoot. This pruning stimulates the re-flowering of young shoots.
Popular types and varieties
Among the few species of bougainvillea, only a few can be grown at home. Most often you can find Brazilian species: naked bougainvillea (Bougainvillea glabra) and wonderful bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis). But plant varieties are striking in variety. They differ not only in shape, color, number of bracts, but also in the color of the leaves.
One of the best is considered to be the bougainvillea of Sanderian with purple bracts and abundant flowering. The most common varieties include bougainvillea ‘Vera Deep Purple ’ with large bracts of fuchsian-raspberry color and abundant flowering. Lovers of colorful leaves will love the bougainvillea ‘Orange Ice’, which amazes not only with bright orange bracts, but also with variegated leaves. An interesting leaf color is also characteristic of the ‘Mini thai’ variety. Bright green leaf blades are framed by a cursory border. In addition, the plant is compact and forms a well-leafy crown.
Bougainvillea ‘Double red’ with red flowers looks very impressive, thanks to terry bracts. Among the interestingly colored varieties, bougainvillea ‘Snowcap multi’ stands out, its bracts have a two-tone white-pink color.