Stretching the back of the thigh can be a painful injury located in the muscles of the leg. The hamstring muscles are made up of three hind muscles located between the thigh and the knee, otherwise called the back of the thigh. The biceps femoris, the semitendinosus, and the membranes begin as a tendon that is inserted into the pelvic bone. These muscles then continue down the length of the femur, crossing the back of the knee to attach to the bones of the lower leg, tibia, and fibula. In addition, a small portion of the hamstring muscle extends through the hip joint. In this article, we will consider how to treat distension of the back of the thigh.
The muscles of the posterior thigh work together with the quadriceps and help control the strength and stability of the knee joint. This allows us to easily perform movements such as walking, running, jumping and squats. Knowing where the hamstring muscles attach to the bones of the leg and pelvis can give you a good idea of how they can get injured. What is muscle atrophy?
Physiotherapy for stretching the back of the thigh
Physical therapy is one of the most common methods for treating distension of the back of the thigh, which helps to increase the range of motion and strengthen the muscles. Physical therapy and rehabilitation programs can be carried out through practical exercises with a physiotherapist or learn how to perform them at home. However, physical therapy is effective only if it is carried out regularly. The goal is to restore the patient’s level of functioning as much as possible while minimizing the risk of overdoing it.
Due to the high incidence rate, slow healing and persistent symptoms of a hamstring injury, it can be quite a challenge for injured and attending physicians. It is estimated that almost a third of the injuries of the posterior thigh are repeated during the first year after returning to sport or physical activity, with subsequent injury becoming more severe than the initial one.
One such physiotherapeutic technique, known as deep cleansing massage, can be used in combination with other commonly used treatments. The effect of deep cleansing massage leads to an increase in the length of the hamstring in less than three minutes, which increases flexibility, but does not affect muscle strength.
The use of kinesiology tape, such as elastic sticky tape, has also proven effective in increasing muscle flexibility and reducing the risk of injury. This device is almost identical to human skin, both in thickness and in elasticity, and is usually used by athletes to treat injuries and various physical disorders. Causes of pain under the knee behind, with flexion.
Exercise & Stretching
Performing targeted stretch marks and enhanced exercises can help in the recovery process. It is important to determine if your particular stretch is slight or heavy, as it dictates the level of intensity with which you should start. Over time, your muscles will become stronger, which will allow you to restore the ability to perform previous physical activity. A five-minute warm-up with light cardio is recommended.
Effective stretch marks on chairs: start by sitting in a chair, bending your knees 90 degrees. Now lift the injured leg off the floor and straighten the leg as far as possible, but to be comfortable. Hold your foot for at least 20 seconds before returning it to the ground. Repeat this stretch five times on both sides to get an even level of flexibility in both legs.
Exercises to strengthen your legs: Using your body weight, you can strengthen your hamstring muscles. Start to lie face down with both legs extended. Now bend one knee and bring the heel to the buttocks for five seconds. Perform two sets of 15 repetitions for each leg. Once this part of the exercise is complete, stay face down, both legs extended straight and lift one foot off the ground as high as possible. Repeat this additional exercise 15 times before switching to the opposite leg. Ultimately, you can add weight to this exercise, as your hamstrings become stronger.
Twisting: these exercises are recommended after you have gained strength in the legs. Start twisting by tying one end of the exercise to a fixed object and the other end to your ankle. Then sit on a chair with an extended knee. Now turn or bend your knee to the ground. This will stretch the band and activate the hamstring. Acceleration can be done simply by stepping up and stepping down from the platform high enough to activate the hamstrings, like a sturdy chair. For each exercise, complete two sets of 15 repetitions.
Standing stretch: start to bend one leg in front of you, the second leg stretched out at the back. Bend the knee of the other leg slightly, leaning back. Keep your pelvis tilted forward and lean forward slowly to reach your bends. You should feel the extension of the back of the extended leg through the calf and thigh. Hold this stretch for 20 to 30 seconds, and then repeat two to three times before switching to the opposite leg. This stretch is perfect for those who like running, sprinting or playing sports on the field.
Seated stretch: start sitting on the floor, both legs stretched out in front of you, knees straight. Lean forward slowly and do your best to reach your toes. Try not to bend your knees to get a good stretch in your hamstrings. After you have reached how much you can stretch, hold this position for 20 to 30 seconds.
Stretching with a partner: With the help of a friend, you can get a deep hamstring stretch. Start lying with your back to the ground. Let your partner raise one leg while you hold it straight. Now your partner should gently raise the leg, stretching it up. It is important not to overexert and maintain contact with your partner so that this does not happen. Repeat this exercise two to three times on both legs.
Foam Roller Exercise: Using the foam roller, you can perform self-massage and myofascial release. Start in a sitting position on the floor, and both legs are extended straight. Place a foam roller under your buttock and begin to roll back and forth and slightly to the sides. Causes of leg pain above the knee.
Recovery time and tips
Recovery from stretching the back of the thigh will depend on the severity of the injury, as well as the ability of your body to be healed. In addition, your commitment to the recommended physiotherapeutic regimens and plans for treating hip dorsal stretching will be a decisive factor in quickly restoring your hamstring.
It is generally recommended that you do not engage in any physical activity until you feel that your damaged leg can move as freely as your undamaged leg, and it has regained its strength. Excessive use before your injury heals completely can result in personal injury or even permanent muscle dysfunction.
It is important to remember that each patient recovers differently, so give yourself the right amount of time before you begin any kind of strenuous exercise.
To give yourself the best chance to prevent hamstring injuries, first of all, it is recommended to warm up and stretch your muscles before any kind of physical activity. Increase exercise intensity slowly, since too much zeal increases the chances of muscle injury exponentially. Stop exercising as soon as you feel that you may have hurt yourself. Finally, focus on strengthening exercise to help increase muscle endurance.
Healing hamstring injuries or most muscle injuries in this regard can be much more difficult than preventing them in the first place. Adhering to the tips and advice on how to treat distension of the back of the thigh described in this article, you can be sure that you are doing everything possible while maintaining your safety. Causes of pain in the thigh and buttocks.
Anatomy of the thigh muscles and the specifics of their stretching
The femoral muscles are divided into 3 large groups. Let's consider each of them.
- The back group - flexors (biceps, semi-tendon, semi-membranous, popliteal). Contraction of the first with a bent knee rotates the shin outward. The rest of these muscles contribute to the movement of the lower leg inward, the last of which acts only on the knee joint, bending it. With a fixed pelvis, the lower leg is bent in the knee joint and the hip is extended, with the fixed lower leg, the trunk is extended. If during these actions the muscle was not preheated, it can stretch painfully - the victim feels severe pain.
- The front muscles include:
- wide medial
- lateral broad,
- intermediate wide.
Damage to the anterior muscle group of the area in question, incl. stretching of the quadriceps femoris, provoked mainly by sharp movements during outdoor games.
- The medial group is the adductor muscles (scallop, short, long and large adductors, slim) located on the inner surface of the thigh. They help bring the thigh and turn it a little outward, bend it in the hip joint, bend the lower leg in the knee joint and turn it inward.
Stretching of the adductor thigh muscle is observed in athletes with an unsuccessful landing after a jump, as well as a direct strong blow, twine on unheated muscle tissue.
Causes of stretching
Injury of the muscles of the thigh occurs according to a rather simple mechanism. The smooth load on the TBS allows you to minimize the load and distribute it to all muscle groups of the leg. A sharp and sudden jerk disables muscles, increasing the likelihood of stretching the thigh muscles. Causes of injury:
- a sharp change in posture,
- high load with insufficient stretching,
- loss of elasticity of muscles and tendons as a result of a prolonged lack of movement,
- exercise and labor, weight lifting,
- external impact: directional blows, unsuccessful falls, unexpected collisions.
The clinical picture of sprain
Symptoms of a person pulling a femoral muscle are:
- Click. The patient feels it at the time of the injury - it breaks muscle fibers.
- Pain. Very intense, usually occurs immediately. The patient is forced to stop moving, sometimes a pain shock develops. Especially painful injuries in the area of the joints of the thigh, since it is here that bundles of nerve fibers are concentrated.
- Pain on palpation. It is impossible to touch the affected area. This immediately allows you to clarify the location of the injury.
- Hematoma. It is formed if blood vessels are damaged and hemorrhage occurs in the tissue and under the skin.
- Edema. It is a sign of hip biceps stretching.
- Stiffness of movements.
The prevalence of edema and hematoma, the severity of pain are additional criteria for the severity of the injury.
Degrees of stretching
Femoral muscle injuries are classified according to the degree of damage:
- The first degree is characterized by the presence of pain in the absence of subcutaneous hemorrhage. The victim may continue to move, but experiences discomfort on the back of the thigh.
- The second degree of hip muscle strain is diagnosed with a partial violation of the integrity of muscle fibers (tear) and is characterized by the presence of hematomas and a pronounced pain syndrome. The patient will experience difficulty walking and raising a straight leg.
- The third degree of muscle tension is diagnosed with a complete rupture of the femoral muscles, accompanied by profuse subcutaneous hemorrhage and intolerable pain in the limbs. Leg movements are extremely painful; the patient cannot walk on his own.
To confirm the diagnosis, you need to contact a traumatologist. He conducts an examination and collects an anamnesis. To determine the localization of the damage, the doctor asks to move a sore leg, bend and straighten to check the joints, examines the bruising and assesses the pain of the injury. If there is any doubt whether the bone is damaged, an additional x-ray is prescribed. Also, the doctor may refer to an MRI or ultrasound scan.
After examining and conducting all diagnostic procedures, the doctor prescribes the necessary treatment. Therapy for hip muscle stretching depends on the degree of damage.
Causes and features of the injury
Injury of the muscles of the back of the thigh occurs with significant load without preparation and heating. Among the main reasons why this violation occurs, there are such as:
- a sharp change of position,
- muscle tone deterioration,
- weight lifting
- bumps and sharp collisions.
Even novice athletes need to remember that it is important to prepare the muscle system for the upcoming loads, so as not to accidentally stretch the muscles, there will not be a dislocation or strain, so that then you do not have to spend a long and expensive treatment.
In case of injury to the femoral muscle, it is first of all important to create rest for the injured limb so that there is no excessive tension on the fibers. Place a soft material roller under your knee. The victim should be in a supine position until the pain and swelling decrease. Then cold is applied to the injured surface (regular ice from the refrigerator, wrapped in cellophane or a towel) will do. The procedure is recommended to be repeated for 20 minutes every 3 hours. It should protect the skin from direct contact with the icy surface, covering it with napkins.
You can use a special ointment with an anesthetic effect to relieve inflammation. The use of warm and hot compresses is contraindicated: this leads to severe bruising. It is also necessary to put an elastic tourniquet on the leg to protect the damaged area from swelling.
If hematomas appeared after first aid, but the pain did not decrease - immediately consult a specialist: delayed treatment can provoke fractures, dislocations and displacements in the affected area in the future.
Types of injury
When the thigh muscles are injured, it can be one of such types of sprains, such as:
- back injury
- adductor muscle
- front muscle.
Stretching the muscles of the back of the thigh can have very serious consequences, since in this area there is a group of muscles responsible for bending the leg at the knee and extension in the hip joint. Injury to this area is accompanied by intense pain.
Stretching of the anterior muscle may occur upon impact. Often such injuries affect people engaged in hand-to-hand combat or other types of wrestling. With such an injury, a tendon rupture occurs.
There are several different degrees of severity of damage to the muscles of the back of the thigh, among which it is necessary to highlight such as:
Depending on the complexity of the injury, the symptoms and clinical manifestations have a certain degree of intensity. A mild degree is considered the simplest, as the symptoms are not too pronounced. The pain of the muscles of the back of the thigh is insignificant and has a pulling character, edema appears very rarely. When walking, there is practically no discomfort. No specialized treatment in a hospital environment is required.
A moderate injury is characterized by the occurrence of more pronounced symptoms. When the muscles of the back of the thigh are torn, severe pain occurs, which is greatly amplified by the movement of the leg. In addition, swelling, bruising and bruising occur, as subcutaneous hemorrhage occurs.
In the first and second degrees, the patient is assigned peace. It is necessary to avoid any physical activity until the complete restoration of muscle tissue and ligaments. After the pain is relieved, the patient is prescribed physiotherapy and physiotherapy exercises.
With a third degree of damage severity, treatment may require more drastic measures: in case of rupture, surgery is performed on damaged muscle tissue. Recovery can last up to six months, depending on the characteristics of the body.
The main symptoms
If during training there was an acute pain in the thigh, then you should consult a doctor to prevent complications. Однако, если нет возможности диагностировать растяжение в профессиональной клинике, то можно самостоятельно распознать наличие проблемы. Стоит отметить, что симптомы разрыва мышц задней поверхности бедра достаточно характерные и выражаются в:
- болезненных ощущениях,
- skin redness
- stiffness of movements
- the presence of a hematoma.
At the most difficult stage of injury, muscle tearing and a sensation of a sudden click occur. Painful sensations can significantly increase with palpation.
A person may well move around, but his gait is clearly impaired. Any movements are accompanied by severe pain. With a complete break, the pain becomes very strong, and the person tries to limit movement.
In addition, fever and severe weakness are possible. Violation of the integrity of the muscles and ligaments of the posterior thigh may be accompanied by the fact that it is impossible to bend the leg at the knee.
Treatment of femoral sprain involves:
- Restriction of motor activity is necessary for effective healing of the thigh muscles: it is recommended to observe bed rest on the first day, and use crutches to move the crutches in the next few days, which can reduce the load on damaged muscles.
- Applying ice packs to treat stretching of the femoral muscles: ice packs should be applied to the affected area two to three times a day and kept for at least half an hour. Alternatively, you can use a heating pad filled with cold water.
- Wearing an elastic bandage or compression stockings.
- Fixation of the limb in a position that promotes the outflow of blood from the damaged area: in order to get rid of edema, the leg must be positioned above the level of the heart. You can achieve the desired effect by placing a pillow or a roller under your foot.
- Oral administration of antispasmodics (No-shpa, Midokalm) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Diclofenac, Ketoprofen, Piroxicam).
- Local medicines should initially be applied before bedtime with massage movements. Subsequent treatment tactics - three times a day. The most effective pharmacy drugs: Lyoton-1000, Heparin ointment, Actovegin, Nikoflex, Voltaren Emulgel, Indomethacin.
An experienced surgeon or traumatologist can accurately determine the presence of violations during an external examination of the patient. Localization of bruising and soreness of the injured area indicate the intensity of the impact that led to the sprain.
Depending on the degree of complexity of the injury, an individual treatment technique is selected. For mild to moderate severity, treatment implies providing rest to the patient and eliminating stress. Sometimes the patient is recommended to walk with support on crutches for a certain time after receiving an injury.
The most severe degree of stretching is treated for a long time. In the case of a tear or a complete rupture of the muscles, surgery is performed. It is best if the operation is carried out in the first week after the injury, since over time the muscle can contract irreversibly, and it will be very difficult to restore its original size. Subsequently, therapy also implies the implementation of physiotherapeutic procedures and the use of special exercises in therapeutic gymnastics.
After the treatment, it is necessary to carry out rehabilitation measures. They include procedures such as:
The rehabilitation period largely depends on the degree of complexity of the injury, for example, with a slight muscle strain, it lasts no more than 10 days. In more complex cases, when the muscles, ligaments or tendons rupture, it may take six months to fully recover.
Any person who prefers to lead an active way of life or goes in for sports should definitely follow basic safety rules, they will help prevent the likelihood of injury during training. As preventive measures, it is absolutely necessary to warm up all muscles well before exercise, and also not to overload the body.
Stretch of the adductor thigh muscle
The internal muscle group is responsible for flattening the legs and flexing the knee. It is injured when trying to sit on the twine without preparation, squats and strong kicks. The long adductor muscle is most susceptible to stretching, which happens in such sports as fencing, soccer, speed skating, handball, skiing, athletics (high jumps).
Since this muscle (quadriceps) is the most massive in the human body, it is injured only by strong exposure (usually this is an excessive load in professional sports) - a reduction in muscle tissue when trying to sharply slow down a high speed of movement. More often, the rectus muscle of this group is damaged, which, unlike the others, is attached to two joints: the hip and the knee.
Hip muscle injuries
In the area of the hip joint there is a whole group of hip muscles that provide complex leg movements (flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation). This is the gluteal, middle gluteus, deep gluteus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, quadratus femoris and others. Their damage occurs quite often, and not only during sports. The main mechanism is an unexpected reduction, which happens with a fall, shock, excessive physical exertion in physically unprepared people.
This is a more severe injury compared to muscle strain. It is preceded by a prolonged tension of the connective tissue, which leads to thinning of the fibers and the loss of their elastic properties. Sprain is possible in the area of the hip joint and knee.
Hip ligaments are injured in the following situations:
- Weight lifting with legs wide apart. Typical injury to athletes.
- Repeated kicks and falls in game sports.
- Stretching under intense loads in untrained people.
A characteristic feature of this injury is the appearance of symptoms not at the time of exposure, but with repeated loading.
- Easy when single fibers are torn.
- Medium degree. Most of the ligament is injured, the separation of fibers from each other begins.
- Severe degree. Tear and complete rupture of the ligamentous apparatus.
The first two degrees are not considered complex and are treated conservatively.
A severe degree is dangerous with complications and incomplete restoration of movement, therefore, requires hospitalization and surgical treatment.
Symptoms and diagnosis of hip extension
Regardless of the location and type of damage (muscle or ligament), a hip injury has common symptoms:
- Click. The patient feels it at the time of the injury. It is torn muscle fibers.
- Pain Very intense, usually occurs immediately. The pain forces the patient to stop moving, sometimes a pain shock develops. Especially painful injuries in the area of the joints of the thigh, since it is here that bundles of nerve fibers are concentrated.
- Palpation tenderness. It is impossible to touch the affected area. This immediately allows you to clarify the location of the injury.
- Hematoma. It is formed if blood vessels are damaged and hemorrhage occurs in the tissue and under the skin.
- Swelling. It is characteristic for stretching the biceps of the thigh.
The prevalence of edema and hematoma, the severity of pain are additional criteria for the severity of the injury.
Diagnosis begins with a detailed questioning of the patient about the circumstances of the injury. It is important not only to find the site of the greatest intensity of the symptoms, but also to find out how the patient pulled the muscles and tendons. Sometimes, due to severe edema and pain, palpation of the injury site is difficult, therefore it is the patient’s story that serves as the basis for establishing the diagnosis. The surgeon performs a bending-extension of the leg, asking the patient to lean on it. After these manipulations, the diagnosis becomes clear. To exclude a bone fracture, dislocation of joints, rupture of ligaments, radiography and computed tomography are prescribed.
Treatment after confirmation of the diagnosis
With the first and second severity of injury to muscles and ligaments (when there is no complete rupture of muscle fibers and ligaments), the patient is treated independently at home. He must strictly observe the following recommendations:
- Complete rest of the affected area. Traveling only on crutches. If these recommendations are not followed, the recovery period is significantly increased and complications can occur. For example, inflammation of the ligaments of the hip joint. The child is allowed to apply a plaster cast to prevent movement, as it is difficult for young children to explain the need for complete rest.
- The diseased leg is placed above the level of the body, placing a pillow under it. This is done to prevent edema.
- It is advisable to fix the injury site with an elastic bandage, without disturbing the blood supply to the tissues.
- The first three to four days apply cold every 4 hours for 15 minutes, then you can lubricate the injured area with warming ointments. A safety criterion for their use is the disappearance of tissue edema. In addition to warming up, there are other local preparations that alleviate the patient's condition. We give their brief characteristics in the table.
|Tissue cooling. Pain and swelling reduction||Heparin ointment, Nikovena||No effect on body temperature|
|Warming||Dolpik, Nikofleks Capsoderm||Use only after the disappearance of edema. Many contain bee venom, which is contraindicated in children and in the presence of allergies.|
|Anesthesia||"Traumeel S", "Fastumgel", "Lyoton"||The composition has ibuprofen and diclofenac. Effective from the first days.|
- If the injury site hurts after an acute period, pain medications are prescribed. A specific drug is best clarified by a doctor, since, for example, with extensive hematoma and edema, aspirin and ibuprofen are contraindicated.
- In the recovery period, which depends on the severity of the injury, massage and physiotherapy are used. Massage can be started already on the fifth day after a slight stretching of the muscles and ligaments. Physiotherapy is prescribed by the doctor individually.
In severe injuries with complete rupture of muscles and tendons, surgical treatment is indicated. Such damage heals much longer and can leave consequences - lameness, limitation of mobility in the joints.
Rehabilitation and recovery
Active rehabilitation can only begin with the permission of a doctor. If you start the exercises earlier, it is possible to repeat the stretching or even breaking of the muscle.
We list the effective methods of rehabilitation:
- Ultrasound. It acts with heat, which improves blood circulation and stimulates the return of cells to normal activities. The procedure is carried out by a special apparatus, lasts 3-10 minutes, is painless. Assign a course (usually 10 procedures) daily.
- Electrophoresis A low-intensity electric current supplied to the damaged muscle through electrodes stimulates small contractions of myocytes. This generally contributes to their regeneration and restoration of function.
- Infrared radiation . Penetrates deep into the tissue, dilates blood vessels, relieves pain.
- Physiotherapy . A set of exercises is prescribed by the doctor individually. Their main principle is regularity and a gradual increase in load.
The timing of recovery depends on the degree of damage:
- With a mild degree - 21 days.
- With an average of two months.
- Severe - up to six months, sometimes physiotherapy needs to be done for a longer period.
Simple rules of prevention help prevent injury to muscles and ligaments in the legs: do not start serious exercises without warming up and warming up, stopping exercise when you feel overworked or sore in the muscles, proper nutrition and weight normalization, and wearing comfortable shoes.
A very effective exercise to quickly restore the ligaments and muscles of the thigh
Treatment of hip muscle sprains at home with folk remedies is in addition to the main treatment prescribed by the doctor.
Below are the most popular recipes used in the treatment of muscle sprain:
- Beer broth. Heat the drink in a water bath, not allowing it to boil. Dip a towel or gauze in it, wring it out and sprinkle with ground pepper on top. Apply a compress to the damaged area for 15 minutes.
- Barberry treatment. Pour a tablespoon of branches, roots and bark of a plant with a glass of water and boil over low heat. Allow the liquid to cool slightly, lower a piece of tissue into it, wring it out and apply to the affected area.
- Onion Therapy. Finely chop the onion head. Mix with sugar to get a thick mixture. Wrap everything in gauze, put on a damaged area and leave for an hour. Do a compress every 2 days.
- Blue clay treatment. Combine the clay powder with water until you get a thick mixture. Put it in the refrigerator. Then put the hardened clay to the affected area. Repeat the procedure every 4-5 hours.
- Compresses with milk. Moisten a cloth with liquid and apply to a damaged area of the thigh. Change compresses every time after they have cooled completely.
- Treatment with pine branches. Fill the enameled container to half with pine branches. Top to the top with water and cook for 30 minutes. Use the resulting broth for the healing bath.
Alternative medicine methods are aimed at eliminating painful symptoms, but not at treating the underlying disease. Before applying folk recipes, a specialist consultation is necessary.
Complications and prevention of sprains
Adverse effects of rupture of ligaments and muscles of the hip area:
- Degenerative joint changes - arthrosis. A factor leading to the disease is trauma to the cartilage of the bones.
- If the round ligament of the femoral head is damaged, then aseptic necrosis may become a complication: tissue necrosis occurs in this area due to a violation of blood supply.
- Muscular hernia can occur when the fascia (connective membrane) that covers the muscle is damaged. Therapy of pathology is required if the victim is professionally involved in sports. Treatment is almost always surgical using grafts.
- Migeloses are seals in the form of nodules that are felt in the muscles. To prevent the development of such an ailment, a foot massage should be performed after each load.
To avoid stretching, it is important to observe safety measures:
- Before heavy physical exertion, conduct a thorough warm-up to warm up all muscle groups,
- be sure to do exercises during training aimed at stretching ligaments and muscle tissue to increase their elasticity,
- the load during classes increases gradually (it is recommended to make the first approach warm-up),
- if you’re not sure that you can perform the exercise correctly, you should not take it until you reach a certain technique and endurance,
- It is important to stop in time: if there is a feeling of muscle overload, it is recommended to stop training, as the risk of injury is increased.
An experienced doctor can eliminate the consequences of stretching the first and second degrees of the thigh muscles in a couple of weeks, complete muscle breakdown - in one to two months.
The success of treatment depends on the timing of contacting a specialist: the sooner the problem is diagnosed, the higher the chances of recovery within a few weeks, not months, so if you experience symptoms of sprains, it is recommended to contact the nearest clinic or call a doctor at home.